Only the numerical and calendrical series on these pages have been considered.
The moon as the basis of the calendrical system occupies the first place in these reports.
The sun, therefore, plays an insignificant part in the calendrical system in comparison with the moon.
But it is more probable that we are indebted to the Babylonians for our calendrical system, Greece and Rome borrowing from them.
The beginning of the calendrical system, indeed, may well have been of popular origin.
c.1200, "system of division of the year;" mid-14c. as "table showing divisions of the year;" from Old French calendier "list, register," from Latin calendarium "account book," from calendae/kalendae "calends" the first day of the Roman month -- when debts fell due and accounts were reckoned -- from calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the new moon that marked the calends, from PIE root kele- (2) "to call, shout" (see claim (v.)).
Taken by the early Church for its register list of saints and their feast days. The -ar spelling in English is 17c. to differentiate it from the now obscure calender "cloth-presser."