Gonzalo retired to Charcas in southern Bolivia, whence he emerged a year later to head the great rebellion.
In general he followed the ancient limits of the audiencia of Charcas.
When Charcas fell under the control of the viceroy of Peru, Paraguay set up a regime for itself.
Only in Peru and Charcas the royalists still battled on behalf of the mother country.
Muchos pantanos, Charcas y esteros se han cegado, y rigen leyes estrictas para el riego.