perhaps another name for Khetam, or "fortress," on the Shur or great wall of Egypt, which extended from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Suez. Here the Israelites made their third encampment (Ex. 13:20; Num. 33:6). The camp was probably a little to the west of the modern town of Ismailia. Here the Israelites were commanded to change their route (Ex. 14:2), and "turn" towards the south, and encamp before Pi-hahiroth. (See EXODUS ØT0001283; PITHOM.)
As it was on these pools of etham that the city mainly depended for its supply, I will describe them first of all.
And they went from Succoth and camped at etham on the border of the wilderness.
To the south are the three reservoirs, situated in the middle of the etham Valley, which slopes steeply down from west to east.
Through it, the turning back of the Hebrews before etham is intelligible.
That the name Aduma (above) refers to etham (so Naville, &c.) is improbable.
And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
And from Soccoth they came into etham, which is in the uttermost borders of the wilderness.
Aqueduct from etham, its skilful construction, 249;subsequent history, 250.
And marching from Socoth, they encamped in etham, in the utmost coasts of the wilderness.