eutrophication is the scientific name of this kind of overenrichment.
eutrophic eu·troph·ic (yōō-trŏf'ĭk, -trō'fĭk)
Relating to, characterized by, or promoting eutrophia.
The process by which a lake, pond, or stream becomes eutrophic, typically as a result of mineral and organic runoff from the surrounding land. The increased growth of plants and algae that accompanies eutrophication depletes the dissolved oxygen content of the water and often causes a die-off of other organisms.
Having waters rich in phosphates, nitrates, and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae. Used of a lake, pond, or stream. Compare dystrophic, oligotrophic.