mid-13c., "action of trying at law, trial," also "capacity for making decisions," from Old French jugement "legal judgment; diagnosis; the Last Judgment" (11c.), from jugier (see judge (v.)). From late 13c. as "penalty imposed by a court;" early 14c. as "any authoritative decision, verdict." From c.1300 in referfence to the Last Judgment. Also from c.1300 as "opinion." Sense of "discernment" is first recorded 1530s.