In addition to marking significant moments in church ritual, they are used in Indian and Hispano village fiestas.
Edmonson's study of 1950 has established the persistence of penitente activity in Hispano culture.
Armant deinde iuvenem aequales: scutum capit, Hispano cingitur gladio, ad propiorem pugnam habili.
By the second quarter of the 19th century, penitentes were common in Hispano villages such as Abiqui.
Inside a Hispano church, however, areas of special useage are marked off clearly within the volume.
Probably made after 1900, this figure demonstrates the persistent artistic and religious heritage of Hispano culture.