But act, in this case, is a neuter or intransitive verb, and wisely expresses the manner of action where there is none!
The same remarks apply to the imperfect and participle of light taken as an intransitive verb.
And when he strikes himself, it "is confined within the subject," and hence the latter is an intransitive verb.
Run is an intransitive verb, for the action mentioned is confined to the agent; he runs.
Rise is an intransitive verb, the action not passing over to an object.
An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
The same is the case with the future passive participle of the intransitive verb.
The combination with the participle of an intransitive verb,—I have waited; thou hast hungered; he has slept.
So, for an intransitive verb we have, either “I am gone,” or “it is gone by me.”
The combination of have with an intransitive verb is irreducible to the idea of possession: indeed, it is illogical.
Note: Some verbs can be intransitive in one sentence and transitive in another. Boiled is intransitive in “My blood boiled” but transitive in “I boiled some water.”