Old English þrote (implied in þrotbolla "the Adam's apple, larynx," literally "throat boll"), related to þrutian "to swell," from Proto-Germanic *thrut- (cf. Old High German drozza, German Drossel, Old Saxon strota, Middle Dutch strote, Dutch strot "throat"), perhaps from PIE *trud- (cf. Old English þrutian "to swell," Old Norse þrutna "to swell").
The notion is of "the swollen part" of the neck. Italian strozza "throat," strozzare "to strangle" are Germanic loan-words. College slang for "competitive student" is 1970s, from cutthroat.
The portion of the digestive tract that lies between the rear of the mouth and the esophagus and includes the fauces and the pharynx.
The anterior portion of the neck.
To answer or respond sharply or angrily: “It's fine if you don't agree with me, but you don't have to jump down my throat.”
To make a violent and wrathful response: When I hinted he might be mistaken he jumped down my throat (1916+)