Kalisz is an open town, with a single line running to Warsaw, 140 miles, via Lodz and Lowicz.
On the morning Kalisz was sacked, not a shot had been fired by the Russian soldiers.
By this time it was past midday, and the streets of Kalisz were nearly deserted.
Why were there no Russian soldiers in the neighbourhood of Kalisz in the beginning of August, 1914?
In Moscow alone there are not less than 1,000 former inhabitants of Kalisz, to say nothing of fleeing people from other provinces.