Robert Barro of Harvard has studied wartime and defense spending, and found a multiplier of only 0.8.
That,” she says, “is the multiplier effect of investing in women.
That takes time before the multiplier effect fully kicks in with private sector job creation.
Second, the economic “multiplier” of state and local spending (not including transfer payments) is large – around 1.24.
And, that increased spending will have a multiplier effect increasing spending even further.
Therefore zeros in the multiplier would cause a corresponding change of position in the figures of the multiplicand.
Let the task be to multiply a multiplicand of four figures by a multiplier of three.
The next step is to arrange the multiplier and the multiplicand above the partial products.
The “bow-pattern” device has novelty interest only, adding nothing to the elucidation of the multiplier phenomenon.
What multiplier ought we to apply to this in order to arrive at the present income in terms of paper marks?