- any member of a class of words that can function as the main or only elements of subjects of verbs (A dog just barked), or of objects of verbs or prepositions (to send money from home), and that in English can take plural forms and possessive endings (Three of his buddies want to borrow John's laptop). Nouns are often described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities, and the word noun is itself often used as an attributive modifier, as in noun compound; noun group.See also noun adjunct, noun clause, noun phrase.
Origin of noun
As we see from its dictionary definition, a noun can name not only a physical thing but also abstract things such as a state ( happiness ) or a quality ( beauty ). The word is defined further in terms of the way it functions in the language—as a subject or object in a sentence or as the object of a preposition. In any of those positions, it can be modified by an adjective or adjective phrase: a talented but quirky artist.
Nouns are typically said to fall into two categories: proper noun and common noun. A proper noun designates a particular person, place, or thing and is normally capitalized: Shakespeare, Mexico, the Pentagon. A common noun refers to a generic person, place, or thing: teacher, classroom, smartphone. The plural form of a common noun names a set or group. (Proper nouns are pluralized only in special circumstances: There are many Springfields in the United States. Oh, no, the Smiths are coming to dinner again. )
To form the plural, most common nouns simply add an -s ( teachers, classrooms, smartphones ). Some nouns ending in –o (but not all) add -es. Nouns ending in the sounds [ch] /tʃ/, [j] /dʒ/, [sh] /ʃ/, [zh] /ʒ/, [s] /s/, or [z] /z/ also have plurals ending in -es ( bus/buses, ash, ashes, judge/judges ). Several nouns form the plural in a different way. These include child/children, knife/knives, and a number of others. Some nouns have a plural form identical to that of the singular: sheep/sheep. Seven English nouns form their plural by changing the vowel in the middle of the word: woman/women, man/men, goose/geese, tooth/teeth, foot/feet, louse/lice. (Can you think of the seventh one?*) And then, of course, there are nouns borrowed from other languages that keep their non-English plurals ( bacterium/bacteria, chapeau/chapeaux, kibbutz/kibbutzim ).
But not all nouns can be pluralized. Thus we have another way to categorize nouns. Those that can be thought of in the plural are called count nouns; the things they name can be counted and enumerated. Other nouns, called mass nouns or noncount nouns, name things that are usually not counted, even when the amount grows larger. This class includes nouns that refer to a substance ( water, sand, oxygen, electricity ), a quality ( kindness, honesty ), or an abstract concept ( happiness, health ). There are exceptions: some substances can be spoken of in the plural if you are referring to various kinds ( The wines of France are known throughout the world ) or to units or containers of the substance ( We’ll have three coffees and two teas ).
Certain other nouns that name something relatively concrete, like furniture, flatware, hardware, and software, are also treated as mass nouns. This means that in English we do not say “This computer comes with the latest softwares.” Nor do we say “I’m buying a furniture” (although we can buy a couch or a table ), since mass nouns normally cannot be immediately preceded by “a,” “an,” or a numeral. Instead, we use the singular form even when referring to large quantities, saying things like “a lot of software” or “too much furniture.” This distinction between count nouns and mass nouns, complex though it may seem, is pretty much absorbed automatically if you grow up speaking English. But it can be one of the most difficult things to assimilate for people learning English as a foreign language. The answer? Read, read, read. And listen.
Examples from the Web for nouns
Pinker notes that roughly a fifth of English verbs began life as nouns or adjectives.Go Ahead, End With a Preposition: Grammar Rules We All Can Live With
November 3, 2014
Time for another round of a dispiriting little game I call “Swap The Nouns.”What If Israeli Would-Be-Lynchers Were Palestinians?
Emily L. Hauser
July 8, 2013
Nouns are adjectives, subjects disagree with objects, modifiers dangle, malapropisms abound.The Gpistolary Novel: Tao Lin’s ‘Taipei’
June 18, 2013
James T. Kirk and Spock (nouns) Main characters in Star Trek.‘Star Trek’ for Dummies: Get Ready for ‘Into Darkness’ With Our Primer
May 14, 2013
All of these nouns came out of the mouths of lawyers or witnesses during the trial.A Hung Jury for Nicollette Sheridan
Maria Elena Fernandez
March 19, 2012
But what I intended to say was, that a mere succession of nouns or of verbs is not discourse.Sophist
The difference of gender in nouns is utilized for the same reason.Cratylus
The numbers of nouns here spoken of are two only; the singular and the plural.
That all nouns of the vocative case are of the second person.
Proof that there are no such words as substantives or nouns.
- a word or group of words that refers to a person, place, or thing or any syntactically similar word
- (as modifier)a noun phrase
Word Origin and History for nouns
late 14c., from Anglo-French noun "name, noun," from Old French nom, non (Modern French nom), from Latin nomen "name, noun" (see name (n.)). Old English used name to mean "noun." Related: Nounal.