Asci are cylindrical; spores spindle-shaped, straight or bow-shaped, rough, 35–8; paraphyses thread-shaped.
paraphyses, jointed filaments mixed with the antheridia of Mosses.
paraphyses (sterile cells) and sometimes cystidia (longer sterile cells) or spines are intermingled with the basidia.
paraphyses may be present as aborted basidia, but cystidia are rarely distinguished.
The asci and paraphyses are very minute, but do not differ essentially in structure from those of Parmelia.
The asci are always present, the paraphyses are sometimes rare, and the mucilage in many cases seems to be entirely wanting.
The mucilage forms itself almost at the same time as the paraphyses, and previous to the formation of the asci.
The asci appear first at the base of the paraphyses, under the form of oblong cells, filled with colourless protoplasm.
In some species, however, the paraphyses are rare, and the mucilaginous substance is entirely wanting.
In this moss, the paraphyses are inflated at the summit into little knobs, or they are capitate (fig. 37).