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[suhm-er] /ˈsʌm ər/
the season between spring and autumn, in the Northern Hemisphere from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox, and in the Southern Hemisphere from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox.
the period comprising the months of June, July, and August in the U.S., and from the middle of May to the middle of August in Great Britain.
a period of hot, usually sunny weather:
We had no real summer last year.
the hotter half of the year (opposed to winter):
They spend the summers in New Hampshire and the winters in Florida.
the period of finest development, perfection, or beauty previous to any decline:
the summer of life.
a whole year as represented by this season:
a girl of fifteen summers.
of, relating to, or characteristic of summer:
Iced tea is a summer drink.
appropriate for or done during the summer:
summer clothes; summer sports.
having the weather or warmth of summer:
summer days in late October.
verb (used without object)
to spend or pass the summer:
They summered in Maine.
verb (used with object)
to keep, feed, or manage during the summer:
Sheep are summered in high pastures.
to make summerlike.
Origin of summer1
before 900; Middle English sumer, Old English sumor; cognate with Dutch zomer, German Sommer, Old Norse sumar summer; akin to Sanskrit samā half-year, year, Old Irish sam-, Welsh haf summer
Related forms
summerless, adjective


[suhm-er] /ˈsʌm ər/
a principal beam or girder, as one running between girts to support joists.
a stone laid upon a pier, column, or wall, from which one or more arches spring: usually molded or otherwise treated like the arch or arches springing from it.
a beam or lintel.
1275-1325; Middle English somer < Anglo-French; Old French somier packhorse, beam < Vulgar Latin *saumārius, equivalent to Latin sagm(a) packsaddle (< Greek ságma) + -ārius -ary; see -er2 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2017.
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Examples from the Web for summer
Contemporary Examples
Historical Examples
  • By the summer of 1542 the tragedy of Catherine Howard was over.

    Holbein Beatrice Fortescue
  • Where are the shadows of the solemn hills, And the fresh music of the summer rills?

    Poems Frances Anne Butler
  • Not the sky, assuredly, and there was no place else possible, unless the door of the summer house.

    Jerry Junior Jean Webster
  • I suppose you spend half your days in those woods in summer.

    Deerbrook Harriet Martineau
  • In summer, she loved rather to stroll over The Mountain, on Sundays.

    Elsie Venner Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
British Dictionary definitions for summer


(sometimes capital)
  1. the warmest season of the year, between spring and autumn, astronomically from the June solstice to the September equinox in the N hemisphere and at the opposite time of year in the S hemisphere
  2. (as modifier): summer flowers, a summer dress, related adjective aestival
the period of hot weather associated with the summer
a time of blossoming, greatest happiness, etc
(mainly poetic) a year represented by this season: a child of nine summers
(intransitive) to spend the summer (at a place)
(transitive) to keep or feed (farm animals) during the summer: they summered their cattle on the mountain slopes
Derived Forms
summerless, adjective
summer-like, adjective
summerly, adjective, adverb
summery, adjective
summeriness, noun
Word Origin
Old English sumor; related to Old Frisian sumur, Old Norse sumar, Old High German sumar, Sanskrit samā season


Also called summer tree. a large horizontal beam or girder, esp one that supports floor joists
another name for lintel
a stone on the top of a column, pier, or wall that supports an arch or lintel
Word Origin
C14: from Anglo-Norman somer, from Old French somier beam, packhorse, from Late Latin sagmārius (equus) pack(horse), from sagma a packsaddle, from Greek
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for summer

"hot season of the year," Old English sumor, from Proto-Germanic *sumur- (cf. Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old High German sumar, Old Frisian sumur, Middle Dutch somer, Dutch zomer, German Sommer), from PIE root *sem- (cf. Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam, Old Welsh ham, Welsh haf "summer"). Old Norse sumarsdag, first day of summer, was the Thursday that fell between April 9 and 15.

Summer camp is attested from 1893; summer resort is from 1832; summer school first recorded 1860; theatrical summer stock is attested from 1942.

"horizontal bearing beam," late 13c., from Anglo-French sumer, Old French somer "main beam," originally "pack horse," from Vulgar Latin *saumarius, from Late Latin sagmarius "pack horse," from sagma "packsaddle" (see sumpter).


"to pass the summer," mid-15c., from summer (n.1). Related: Summered; summering.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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summer in Technology

String manipulation and pattern matching language by Klint & Sint at CWI in the late 1970s. It was recently used as the input and implementation language for the Dataflow Compiler Project at CWI.
["An Overview of the SUMMER Programming Language", Paul Klint, 7th POPL, ACM 1980, pp. 47-55].

The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010
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