A single 100- by 100-foot VL pad weighs around 30 tons and comprises 400 pieces, each individually installed by two people.
How was the requirement for the F-35B to VL on a non-standard runway framed?
But to do VL, the engine thrust must be pointed straight downward, and the jet is twice the size of a Harrier.
The limiting value, to which VL and vv converge at Tc, is called the critical volume, and we shall represent it by vc.
If we call the liquid volume VL, and the vapour vv, vv - VL decreases if the temperature rises, and becomes zero at Tc.