These are the Ghosts of the Sahara, Sahrawi refugees whose Western Sahara homeland was illegally invaded by Morocco in 1975.
But Morocco stands firmly on claims that it has historic links to the Western Sahara dating back many centuries.
They fled along the caravan route that crosses the Western Sahara, and looked ever for the dust of a pursuing kafila.
In all the Western Sahara it abounds, producing the finest gums.
Dakar was the center of activities for the whole Western Sahara and down into the Sudan.