backward

[bak-werd]

adverb Also back·wards.

adjective


Idioms

    backward and forward, thoroughly: He knew his lesson backward and forward.Also backwards and forwards.

Origin of backward

First recorded in 1250–1300, backward is from the Middle English word bakwarde. See back1, -ward
Related formsback·ward·ly, adverbback·ward·ness, nounun·back·ward, adjective

Synonyms for backward

Antonyms for backward

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2019

Related Words for backward and forward

seesaw, zigzag

British Dictionary definitions for backward and forward

backward

adjective

(usually prenominal) directed towards the reara backward glance
retarded in physical, material, or intellectual developmentbackward countries; a backward child
  1. of or relating to the past; conservative or reactionary
  2. (in combination)backward-looking
reluctant or bashfula backward lover
chess (of a pawn) behind neighbouring pawns and unable to be supported by them

adverb

a variant of backwards
Derived Formsbackwardly, adverbbackwardness, noun
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for backward and forward

backward

adv.

c.1300, from abakward, from Old English on bæc (see back (adv.)) + -weard adjectival and adverbial suffix (see -ward). Old English had the adverb bæcling. As an adjective, from 1550s. Meaning "behindhand with regard to progress" is first attested 1690s. To ring bells backward (from lowest to highest), c.1500, was a signal of alarm for fire or invasion, or to express dismay. Another Middle English word for "backward, wrongly" was arseward (c.1400).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

Idioms and Phrases with backward and forward

backward and forward

Also, backwards and forwards.

1

Same as back and forth.

2

Thoroughly, completely, as in He read the speech over and over, until he knew it backwards and forwards. [Late 1500s]

backward

In addition to the idiom beginning with backward

  • backward and forward

also see:

  • bend over backward
  • fall over (backwards)
  • know like a book (backwards and forwards)
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.