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backward

[bak-werd]
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adverb Also back·wards.
  1. toward the back or rear.
  2. with the back foremost.
  3. in the reverse of the usual or right way: counting backward from 100.
  4. toward the past: to look backward over one's earlier mistakes.
  5. toward a less advanced state; retrogressively: Since the overthrow of the president the country has moved steadily backward.
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adjective
  1. directed toward the back or past.
  2. reversed; returning: a backward movement; a backward journey.
  3. behind in time or progress; late; slow: a backward learner; a backward country.
  4. bashful or hesitant; shy: a backward lover.
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Idioms
  1. backward and forward, thoroughly: He knew his lesson backward and forward.Also backwards and forwards.
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Origin of backward

First recorded in 1250–1300, backward is from the Middle English word bakwarde. See back1, -ward
Related formsback·ward·ly, adverbback·ward·ness, nounun·back·ward, adjective

Synonyms for backward

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Antonyms for backward

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

Related Words for backwardness

retardation, idiocy, abnormality, slowness, diffidence, demureness, reluctance, reticence, coyness, hesitancy, timidness

Examples from the Web for backwardness

Contemporary Examples of backwardness

Historical Examples of backwardness

  • Anne had no backwardness in believing now, the deed was so exactly Lydia's.

    The Prisoner

    Alice Brown

  • The backwardness of England in education used to make him wring his hands.

  • He scarcely shares my hopes, but he shows no signs of backwardness.

  • No latsummes (backwardness, reluctance) was in him when once fully set.

    In Convent Walls

    Emily Sarah Holt

  • On his side there is no backwardness now; on hers no coyness, no mock modesty.

    The Death Shot

    Mayne Reid


British Dictionary definitions for backwardness

backward

adjective
  1. (usually prenominal) directed towards the reara backward glance
  2. retarded in physical, material, or intellectual developmentbackward countries; a backward child
    1. of or relating to the past; conservative or reactionary
    2. (in combination)backward-looking
  3. reluctant or bashfula backward lover
  4. chess (of a pawn) behind neighbouring pawns and unable to be supported by them
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adverb
  1. a variant of backwards
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Derived Formsbackwardly, adverbbackwardness, noun
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for backwardness

n.

1580s, from backward + -ness.

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backward

adv.

c.1300, from abakward, from Old English on bæc (see back (adv.)) + -weard adjectival and adverbial suffix (see -ward). Old English had the adverb bæcling. As an adjective, from 1550s. Meaning "behindhand with regard to progress" is first attested 1690s. To ring bells backward (from lowest to highest), c.1500, was a signal of alarm for fire or invasion, or to express dismay. Another Middle English word for "backward, wrongly" was arseward (c.1400).

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Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

Idioms and Phrases with backwardness

backward

In addition to the idiom beginning with backward

  • backward and forward

also see:

  • bend over backward
  • fall over (backwards)
  • know like a book (backwards and forwards)
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The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.