John . 1908–91, US physicist and electrical engineer, noted for his research on electrical conduction in solids; shared Nobel prize for physics 1956 for research on semiconductors leading to the invention of the transistor; shared Nobel prize for physics 1972 for contributions to the theory of superconductivity
American physicist who, with William Brattain and William Shockley, invented the transistor in 1947. For this work all three shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for physics. In 1972 Bardeen shared another Nobel Prize for physics with American physicists Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for their development of the theory of superconductivity.