- the Catholic, 1452–1516, founder of the Spanish monarchy 1506: king of Sicily 1468–1516, king of Aragon 1479–1516; as Ferdinand III, king of Naples 1504–16; as King Ferdinand V, joint sovereign (with Isabella I) of Castile 1474–1504.
- 1578–1637, king of Bohemia 1617–19, 1620–37; king of Hungary 1619?–37; emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1620–37.
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- 1578–1637, Holy Roman Emperor (1619–37); king of Bohemia (1617–19; 1620–37) and of Hungary (1617–37). His anti-Protestant policies led to the Thirty Years' War
- title as king of Aragon and Sicily of Ferdinand V