- a folder, cabinet, or other container in which papers, letters, etc., are arranged in convenient order for storage or reference.
- a collection of papers, records, etc., arranged in convenient order: to make a file for a new account.
- Computers. a collection of related data or program records stored on some input/output or auxiliary storage medium: This program's main purpose is to update the customer master file.
- a line of persons or things arranged one behind another (distinguished from rank1def 10).
- a person in front of or behind another in a military formation.
- one step on a promotion list.
- one of the vertical lines of squares on a chessboard.
- a list or roll.
- a string or wire on which papers are strung for preservation and reference.
- to place in a file.
- to arrange (papers, records, etc.) in convenient order for storage or reference.
- to arrange (copy) in the proper order for transmittal by wire.
- to transmit (copy), as by wire or telephone: He filed copy from Madrid all through the war.
- to march in a file or line, one after another, as soldiers: The parade filed past endlessly.
- to make application: to file for a civil-service job.
- on file, arranged in order for convenient reference; in a file: The names are on file in the office.
Origin of file1
SynonymsSee more synonyms for on Thesaurus.com
- a long, narrow tool of steel or other metal having a series of ridges or points on its surfaces for reducing or smoothing surfaces of metal, wood, etc.
- a small, similar tool for trimming and cleaning fingernails; nail file.
- British Slang. a cunning, shrewd, or artful person.
- to reduce, smooth, or remove with or as if with a file.
Origin of file2
- to defile; corrupt.
Origin of file3
- a powder made from the ground leaves of the sassafras tree, used as a thickener and to impart a pungent taste to soups, gumbos, and other dishes.
Origin of filé
Related Wordscase, information, dossier, list, notebook, record, book, directory, folder, data, column, register, enter, index, repository, pigeonhole, cabinet, census, portfolio, docket
Examples from the Web for file
Did he go to the authorities to file a report against the Guerreros Unidos drug cartel?Mexico’s Priests Are Marked for Murder
January 7, 2015
With 3D printing you can continue to use the file and update.3-D Printing Is Changing the Future of Prosthetics
December 10, 2014
She also told TMZ that she plans to file a civil suit against Cosby.Bill Cosby’s Long List of Accusers (So Far): 18 Alleged Sexual Assault Victims Between 1965-2004
November 24, 2014
Now, the foundation has presidents, boards, and accountants, and their job is to file.Wyclef Jean Talks Lauryn Hill, the Yele Haiti Controversy, and Chris Christie
November 20, 2014
Crooks can use it to apply for credit, file fake claims with insurers, or buy drugs and medical equipment that can be resold.How Your Pacemaker Will Get Hacked
Kaiser Health News
November 17, 2014
If you were envied, why should you sharpen envy, and file up its teeth to an edge?Clarissa, Volume 2 (of 9)
A complete list of the changes made is appended at the end of the file.
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During the night he managed to file the brass of his bedstead.My Double Life
Several dozen ogres were sitting around the cave in rank and file.The Chinese Fairy Book
- a folder, box, etc, used to keep documents or other items in order
- the documents, etc, kept in this way
- documents or information about a specific subject, person, etcwe have a file on every known thief
- an orderly line or row
- a line of people in marching formation, one behind anotherCompare rank 1 (def. 6)
- any of the eight vertical rows of squares on a chessboard
- computing a named collection of information, in the form of text, programs, graphics, etc, held on a permanent storage device such as a magnetic disk
- obsolete a list or catalogue
- Canadian a group of problems or responsibilities, esp in government, associated with a particular topicthe environment file
- on file recorded or catalogued for reference, as in a file
- to place (a document, letter, etc) in a file
- (tr) to put on record, esp to place (a legal document) on public or official record; register
- (tr) to bring (a suit, esp a divorce suit) in a court of law
- (tr) to submit (copy) to a newspaper or news agency
- (intr) to march or walk in a file or filesthe ants filed down the hill
- a hand tool consisting essentially of a steel blade with small cutting teeth on some or all of its faces. It is used for shaping or smoothing metal, wood, etc
- rare, British slang a cunning or deceitful person
- (tr) to shape or smooth (a surface) with a file
- (tr) obsolete to pollute or defile
Word Origin and History for file
"to place (papers) in consecutive order for future reference," mid-15c., from Middle French filer "string documents on a wire for preservation or reference," from fil "thread, string" (12c.), from Latin filum "a thread, string," from PIE *gwhis-lom (cf. Armenian jil "sinew, string, line," Lithuanian gysla "vein, sinew," Old Church Slavonic zila "vein"), from root *gwhi- "thread, tendon." The notion is of documents hung up on a line.
File (filacium) is a threed or wyer, whereon writs, or other exhibits in courts, are fastened for the better keeping of them. [Cowel, "The Interpreter," 1607]
Methods have become more sophisticated, but the word has stuck. Related: Filed; filing.
metal tool, Old English feol (Mercian fil), from Proto-Germanic *finkhlo (cf. Old Saxon and Old High German fila, Middle Dutch vile, Dutch vijl, German Feile), probably from PIE *peig- "to cut, mark by incision" (see paint (v.)). The verb in this sense is from early 13c., from Old English filian. Related: Filed; filing.
1520s, "string or wire on which documents are strung," from French file "row," from Middle French filer (see file (v.)). The meaning "arranged collection of papers" is from 1620s; computer sense is from 1954. The military sense "line or row of men" (1590s) is from the French verb in the sense of "spin out (thread); march in file."
- A collection of related data or program records stored as a unit with a single name. Files are the basic units that a computer works with in storing and retrieving data.
Idioms and Phrases with file
see in single file; on file; rank and file.