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Origin of noun
grammar notes for noun
As we see from its dictionary definition, a noun can name not only a physical thing but also abstract things such as a state ( happiness ) or a quality ( beauty ). The word is defined further in terms of the way it functions in the language—as a subject or object in a sentence or as the object of a preposition. In any of those positions, it can be modified by an adjective or adjective phrase: a talented but quirky artist.
Nouns are typically said to fall into two categories: proper noun and common noun. A proper noun designates a particular person, place, or thing and is normally capitalized: Shakespeare, Mexico, the Pentagon. A common noun refers to a generic person, place, or thing: teacher, classroom, smartphone. The plural form of a common noun names a set or group. (Proper nouns are pluralized only in special circumstances: There are many Springfields in the United States. Oh, no, the Smiths are coming to dinner again. )
To form the plural, most common nouns simply add an -s ( teachers, classrooms, smartphones ). Some nouns ending in –o (but not all) add -es. Nouns ending in the sounds [ch] /tʃ/, [j] /dʒ/, [sh] /ʃ/, [zh] /ʒ/, [s] /s/, or [z] /z/ also have plurals ending in -es ( bus/buses, ash, ashes, judge/judges ). Several nouns form the plural in a different way. These include child/children, knife/knives, and a number of others. Some nouns have a plural form identical to that of the singular: sheep/sheep. Seven English nouns form their plural by changing the vowel in the middle of the word: woman/women, man/men, goose/geese, tooth/teeth, foot/feet, louse/lice. (Can you think of the seventh one?*) And then, of course, there are nouns borrowed from other languages that keep their non-English plurals ( bacterium/bacteria, chapeau/chapeaux, kibbutz/kibbutzim ).
But not all nouns can be pluralized. Thus we have another way to categorize nouns. Those that can be thought of in the plural are called count nouns; the things they name can be counted and enumerated. Other nouns, called mass nouns or noncount nouns, name things that are usually not counted, even when the amount grows larger. This class includes nouns that refer to a substance ( water, sand, oxygen, electricity ), a quality ( kindness, honesty ), or an abstract concept ( happiness, health ). There are exceptions: some substances can be spoken of in the plural if you are referring to various kinds ( The wines of France are known throughout the world ) or to units or containers of the substance ( We’ll have three coffees and two teas ).
Certain other nouns that name something relatively concrete, like furniture, flatware, hardware, and software, are also treated as mass nouns. This means that in English we do not say “This computer comes with the latest softwares.” Nor do we say “I’m buying a furniture” (although we can buy a couch or a table ), since mass nouns normally cannot be immediately preceded by “a,” “an,” or a numeral. Instead, we use the singular form even when referring to large quantities, saying things like “a lot of software” or “too much furniture.” This distinction between count nouns and mass nouns, complex though it may seem, is pretty much absorbed automatically if you grow up speaking English. But it can be one of the most difficult things to assimilate for people learning English as a foreign language. The answer? Read, read, read. And listen.
OTHER WORDS FROM nounnoun·al, adjectivenoun·al·ly, adverb
Words nearby noun
Example sentences from the Web for nouns
Pinker notes that roughly a fifth of English verbs began life as nouns or adjectives.Go Ahead, End With a Preposition: Grammar Rules We All Can Live With|Nick Romeo|November 3, 2014|DAILY BEAST
Time for another round of a dispiriting little game I call “Swap The Nouns.”What If Israeli Would-Be-Lynchers Were Palestinians?|Emily L. Hauser|July 8, 2013|DAILY BEAST
Nouns are adjectives, subjects disagree with objects, modifiers dangle, malapropisms abound.
James T. Kirk and Spock (nouns) Main characters in Star Trek.‘Star Trek’ for Dummies: Get Ready for ‘Into Darkness’ With Our Primer|Sujay Kumar|May 14, 2013|DAILY BEAST
All of these nouns came out of the mouths of lawyers or witnesses during the trial.
It possesses its own nouns, verbs and other parts of speech, a sprinkling of slang, and practically no "swear" words.The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe|Ernest Young
In short, we have the types of meaning embodied in language in the form of nouns, adjectives, and verbs.Essays in Experimental Logic|John Dewey
The slips containing the questions are then collected in a box or hat, and those containing the nouns in another receptacle.Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium|Jessie H. Bancroft
When nouns are attended by participles, two constructions are possible.The Style Book of The Detroit News|The Detroit News
Ca serves also to join the numbers to the nouns, thus: Usa cataoo.English-Bisaya Grammar|Various
British Dictionary definitions for nouns
- a word or group of words that refers to a person, place, or thing or any syntactically similar word
- (as modifier)a noun phrase
Derived forms of nounnounal, adjectivenounally, adverbnounless, adjective
Word Origin for noun
Cultural definitions for nouns
The part of speech that names a person, place, thing, or idea. The following words are nouns: child, town, granite, kindness, government, elephant, and Taiwan. In sentences, nouns generally function as subjects or as objects.