QUIZ YOURSELF ON THE MANY TYPES OF NOUNS
Origin of noun
grammar notes for noun
As we see from its dictionary definition, a noun can name not only a physical thing but also abstract things such as a state ( happiness ) or a quality ( beauty ). The word is defined further in terms of the way it functions in the language—as a subject or object in a sentence or as the object of a preposition. In any of those positions, it can be modified by an adjective or adjective phrase: a talented but quirky artist.
Nouns are typically said to fall into two categories: proper noun and common noun. A proper noun designates a particular person, place, or thing and is normally capitalized: Shakespeare, Mexico, the Pentagon. A common noun refers to a generic person, place, or thing: teacher, classroom, smartphone. The plural form of a common noun names a set or group. (Proper nouns are pluralized only in special circumstances: There are many Springfields in the United States. Oh, no, the Smiths are coming to dinner again. )
To form the plural, most common nouns simply add an -s ( teachers, classrooms, smartphones ). Some nouns ending in –o (but not all) add -es. Nouns ending in the sounds [ch], /tʃ/, [j], /dʒ/, [sh], /ʃ/, [zh], /ʒ/, [s], /s/, or [z] /z/ also have plurals ending in -es ( bus/buses, ash, ashes, judge/judges ). Several nouns form the plural in a different way. These include child/children, knife/knives, and a number of others. Some nouns have a plural form identical to that of the singular: sheep/sheep. Seven English nouns form their plural by changing the vowel in the middle of the word: woman/women, man/men, goose/geese, tooth/teeth, foot/feet, louse/lice. (Can you think of the seventh one?*) And then, of course, there are nouns borrowed from other languages that keep their non-English plurals ( bacterium/bacteria, chapeau/chapeaux, kibbutz/kibbutzim ).
But not all nouns can be pluralized. Thus we have another way to categorize nouns. Those that can be thought of in the plural are called count nouns; the things they name can be counted and enumerated. Other nouns, called mass nouns or noncount nouns, name things that are usually not counted, even when the amount grows larger. This class includes nouns that refer to a substance ( water, sand, oxygen, electricity ), a quality ( kindness, honesty ), or an abstract concept ( happiness, health ). There are exceptions: some substances can be spoken of in the plural if you are referring to various kinds ( The wines of France are known throughout the world ) or to units or containers of the substance ( We’ll have three coffees and two teas ).
Certain other nouns that name something relatively concrete, like furniture, flatware, hardware, and software, are also treated as mass nouns. This means that in English we do not say “This computer comes with the latest softwares.” Nor do we say “I’m buying a furniture” (although we can buy a couch or a table ), since mass nouns normally cannot be immediately preceded by “a,” “an,” or a numeral. Instead, we use the singular form even when referring to large quantities, saying things like “a lot of software” or “too much furniture.” This distinction between count nouns and mass nouns, complex though it may seem, is pretty much absorbed automatically if you grow up speaking English. But it can be one of the most difficult things to assimilate for people learning English as a foreign language. The answer? Read, read, read. And listen.
OTHER WORDS FROM nounnounal, adjectivenoun·al·ly, adverb
Example sentences from the Web for noun
Pinker notes that roughly a fifth of English verbs began life as nouns or adjectives.Go Ahead, End With a Preposition: Grammar Rules We All Can Live With|Nick Romeo|November 3, 2014|DAILY BEAST
Notice there is no harm to clarity when you use less with count nouns.
Time for another round of a dispiriting little game I call “Swap The Nouns.”What If Israeli Would-Be-Lynchers Were Palestinians?|Emily L. Hauser|July 8, 2013|DAILY BEAST
Nouns are adjectives, subjects disagree with objects, modifiers dangle, malapropisms abound.
James T. Kirk and Spock (nouns) Main characters in Star Trek.‘Star Trek’ for Dummies: Get Ready for ‘Into Darkness’ With Our Primer|Sujay Kumar|May 14, 2013|DAILY BEAST
The Provençal has not even the formal distinction of the nouns in al, which in French make their plural in aux.
Like the corresponding French nouns in -eur, these nouns in -aire, as well as those in -èire, are also used as adjectives.
One third of the words in this paragraph are descriptive nouns and adjectives, none of which the reader wishes to change.
To show the use of adjectives and nouns in description, the following from Kipling is a good illustration.
Be careful to select things that have been made 82 happy, and to use adjectives and nouns that are full of joy.
British Dictionary definitions for noun
- a word or group of words that refers to a person, place, or thing or any syntactically similar word
- (as modifier)a noun phrase
Derived forms of nounnounal, adjectivenounally, adverbnounless, adjective
Word Origin for noun
Cultural definitions for noun
The part of speech that names a person, place, thing, or idea. The following words are nouns: child, town, granite, kindness, government, elephant, and Taiwan. In sentences, nouns generally function as subjects or as objects.