the process in living organisms of taking in oxygen from the surroundings and giving out carbon dioxide (external respiration). In terrestrial animals this is effected by breathing air
the chemical breakdown of complex organic substances, such as carbohydrates and fats, that takes place in the cells and tissues of animals and plants, during which energy is released and carbon dioxide produced (internal respiration)
The act or process of inhaling and exhaling; breathing.ventilation
The act or process by which an organism without lungs, such as a fish or plant, exchanges gases with its environment.
The oxidative process occurring within living cells by which the chemical energy of organic molecules is released in a series of metabolic steps involving the consumption of oxygen and the liberation of carbon dioxide and water.
Any of various analogous metabolic processes by which organisms, such as fungi, obtain energy from organic molecules.
The process by which organisms exchange gases, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide, with the environment. In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration takes place in the lungs. In fish and many invertebrates, respiration takes place through the gills. Respiration in green plants occurs during photosynthesis.