- Physics. the least energy necessary to free an electron from a metal surface.
- Thermodynamics. Helmholtz function.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2019
- physics the minimum energy required to transfer an electron from a point within a solid to a point just outside its surfaceSymbol: φ, Φ
- thermodynamics another name (not now used because of confusion with sense 1) for Helmholtz function
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012