- Physics. the least energy necessary to free an electron from a metal surface.
- Thermodynamics. Helmholtz function.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018
- physics the minimum energy required to transfer an electron from a point within a solid to a point just outside its surfaceSymbol: φ, Φ
- thermodynamics another name (not now used because of confusion with sense 1) for Helmholtz function