Did You Know How This Word Was Formed?

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Words are funny things. For one thing, they are always changing. Consider
lit
, which, conventionally, refers to “lighting something up, e.g., a lit candle.” But, in slang, lit means something is “excellent.” It’s hot, it’s on fire—which are just more examples of how we play with words.

For another, they keep secret stories of the past. Did you know 
daisy
literally means “day’s eye,” named for the way the flower’s petals would open at dawn?

And, some words look like one thing but are actually another.
Bridal
, for instance, looks like a simple adjective form of bride, but it actually smushes bride together with ale, as bridal originally referred to a “marriage feast.”

Brides and beer? Now that sounds fun. So do these six other words with surprisingly formed origins.

Helicopter

GIPHY

GIPHY

The word 
helicopter
looks like it combines heli-, which we may think is associated with the sun, and copter, but that just doesn’t take flight.

Helicopter actually joins
helico
, from a Greek root meaning “spiral” (think 
helix
) and
pter
, from a Greek root meaning “wing” (think 
pterodactyl
). That means a helicopter is, literally, a machine with “spiral wings.” Makes sense.

The first operational helicopters took flight in the 1930s, though the word dates back to the 1860s, thanks to French models and toys. The concept is yet older, found in ancient China and in da Vinci’s notebooks.

Mortgage

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GIPHY

mortgage is “an agreement under which a person borrows money to buy property, like a house.” Typically, a mortgage can take 15–30 years to pay off. If that sounds like a heavy burden to shoulder through life, then wait til you learn where it comes from.

Borrowed into English in the 14th century, mortgage literally means “dead pledge” (
mort
 is “dead,” like mortal and 
gage
, “pledge” or “stake,” related to wage.) If the debt of a mortgage is paid, then the deal is done—like it’s dead.

Suddenly housewarming parties seem like much more somber occasions.

Sacrilege

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Sacrilege
is “the violation or profanation of anything sacred or held sacred.” It’s most commonly used to describe profane statements about things concerning God or religion.

Which is why it’s reasonable to think the rilege part of sacrilege would come from or be related to religion. Plus, the adjective form sacrilegious sounds a lot like religious.

But
sacré bleu
Sacrilege actually goes all the way back to a Latin phrase, sacrum legere, meaning “to steal from a holy place.” Indeed, a sacrilegious thing to do. 

Salary

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Paper. Cheddar. Benjamins.
Rubber bands
. There’s a lot of slang you could use to describe your paycheck, but we’re throwing it all the way back to the original:
salt
.

Via French, the word
salary
(recorded in English in the 14th century) ultimately goes back to the Latin salarium, “an allowance” or “stipend.” The root of this word is sal, or “salt,” referring to the money Roman soldiers got to buy salt.

Salt is humble today, but this meat-preserver and flavor-added has long been very valuable, once worth the same as gold. Put that on your French fries.

Enthusiasm

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Think you have 
enthusiasm
? Try the origin of the word.

Found in English by the mid-1500s, enthusiasm ultimately comes (via French and Latin) from a Greek word meaning “inspired by or possessed by a god,” such as an artist or poet is said to experience when creating a visionary work. The -thus- part of enthusiasm goes back to the Greek theos, “god,” which shows up in words like
theology
.

Early instances of enthusiasm weren’t so kind in English in the 1500s, though, as the word referred to “pretended frenzies of divine inspiration.” There’s nothing quite like fake enthusiasm.

Sabotage

We use the word 
sabotage
 for “underhanded interference with work or production,” and the word treads, shall we say, an unusual past.

Sabotage comes from sabotan old French word for a type of “wooden shoe.” It’s often said that, in the 19th century, discontented workers would throw their sabots into machines to destroy them. The evidence for this, though, isn’t well-soled. It seems sabotage grows out of a comparison of clumsy, lazy workers to people wearing wooden shoes. So, apparently
saboteurs
stuck it to their employers by slowing down their work.

English picked up sabotage in the 1910s. The Beastie Boys picked it up in 1994. And wooden shoes became a thing of the past.

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