It is just the satraps and fellahs of Persia—the mandarins and peasants of China—the zemindars and ryots of Hindostan over again.
The farmers in Egypt irrigate in the same way as the ryots of India.
The merchants and ryots are expected to pay them once a year, the former in money, and the latter in grain at harvest time.
It is the business of all, from the ryots to the dewan, to conceal and deceive.
Certain deductions have to be made—some ryots may be defaulters.
Inquiry shows us this is the result of a system prevailing throughout the country, the oppression of the ryots by the Zemindars.
I allude here chiefly to the ryots of wealthy Zemindars and to other poor Hindu people in the service of their own countrymen.
The zemindar was not a landlord in the eyes of the ryots, because under Mogul law he could not raise the rents.
One day some hundreds of his ryots came to the kacheri, and with joined palms stood at the door.
The country of the ryots through which we marched is certainly a beautiful one, judging at this time of the year.