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slave

[sleyv]
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noun
  1. a person who is the property of and wholly subject to another; a bond servant.
  2. a person entirely under the domination of some influence or person: a slave to a drug.
  3. a drudge: a housekeeping slave.
  4. a slave ant.
  5. Photography. a subsidiary flash lamp actuated through its photoelectric cell when the principal flash lamp is discharged.
  6. Machinery. a mechanism under control of and repeating the actions of a similar mechanism.Compare master(def 19).
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verb (used without object), slaved, slav·ing.
  1. to work like a slave; drudge.
  2. to engage in the slave trade; procure, transport, or sell slaves.
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verb (used with object), slaved, slav·ing.
  1. to connect (a machine) to a master as its slave.
  2. Archaic. to enslave.
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Origin of slave

1250–1300; Middle English sclave < Medieval Latin sclāvus (masculine), sclāva (feminine) slave, special use of Sclāvus Slavic, so called because Slavs were commonly enslaved in the early Middle Ages; see Slav
Related formsslave·less, adjectiveslave·like, adjectivepro·slave, adjectivesem·i·slave, noun

Synonyms

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7. toil, labor, slog, grind.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

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British Dictionary definitions for slaving

slave

noun
  1. a person legally owned by another and having no freedom of action or right to property
  2. a person who is forced to work for another against his will
  3. a person under the domination of another person or some habit or influencea slave to television
  4. a person who works in harsh conditions for low pay
    1. a device that is controlled by or that duplicates the action of another similar device (the master device)
    2. (as modifier)slave cylinder
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verb
  1. (intr often foll by away) to work like a slave
  2. (tr) an archaic word for enslave
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Word Origin

C13: via Old French from Medieval Latin Sclāvus a Slav, one held in bondage (from the fact that the Slavonic races were frequently conquered in the Middle Ages), from Late Greek Sklabos a Slav
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for slaving

slave

n.

late 13c., "person who is the chattel or property of another," from Old French esclave (13c.), from Medieval Latin Sclavus "slave" (source also of Italian schiavo, French esclave, Spanish esclavo), originally "Slav" (see Slav); so used in this secondary sense because of the many Slavs sold into slavery by conquering peoples.

This sense development arose in the consequence of the wars waged by Otto the Great and his successors against the Slavs, a great number of whom they took captive and sold into slavery. [Klein]

Meaning "one who has lost the power of resistance to some habit or vice" is from 1550s. Applied to devices from 1904, especially those which are controlled by others (cf. slave jib in sailing, similarly of locomotives, flash bulbs, amplifiers). Slave-driver is attested from 1807; extended sense of "cruel or exacting task-master" is by 1854. Slate state in U.S. history is from 1812. Slave-trade is attested from 1734.

Old English Wealh "Briton" also began to be used in the sense of "serf, slave" c.850; and Sanskrit dasa-, which can mean "slave," apparently is connected to dasyu- "pre-Aryan inhabitant of India." More common Old English words for slave were þeow (related to þeowian "to serve") and þræl (see thrall). The Slavic words for "slave" (Russian rab, Serbo-Croatian rob, Old Church Slavonic rabu) are from Old Slavic *orbu, from the PIE root *orbh- (also source of orphan), the ground sense of which seems to be "thing that changes allegiance" (in the case of the slave, from himself to his master). The Slavic word is also the source of robot.

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Slave

Indian tribe of northwestern Canada, 1789, from slave (n.), translating Cree (Algonquian) awahkan "captive, slave."

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slave

v.

1550s, "to enslave," from slave (n.). The meaning "work like a slave" is first recorded 1719. Related: Slaved; slaving.

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Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper