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orthogonal

[ awr-thog-uh-nl ]
/ ɔrˈθɒg ə nl /
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adjective
Mathematics.
  1. Also orthographic. pertaining to or involving right angles or perpendiculars: an orthogonal projection.
  2. (of a system of real functions) defined so that the integral of the product of any two different functions is zero.
  3. (of a system of complex functions) defined so that the integral of the product of a function times the complex conjugate of any other function equals zero.
  4. (of two vectors) having an inner product equal to zero.
  5. (of a linear transformation) defined so that the length of a vector under the transformation equals the length of the original vector.
  6. (of a square matrix) defined so that its product with its transpose results in the identity matrix.
Crystallography. referable to a rectangular set of axes.
having no bearing on the matter at hand; independent of or irrelevant to another thing or each other: It’s an interesting question, but orthogonal to our exploration of the right to privacy.
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Origin of orthogonal

First recorded in 1565–75; obsolete orthogon(ium) “right triangle,” from Late Latin orthogōnium or directly from Greek orthogṓnion (neuter) “right-angled,” equivalent to ortho-ortho- + -gōnion-gon) + -al1

OTHER WORDS FROM orthogonal

or·thog·o·nal·i·ty [awr-thog-uh-nal-i-tee], /ɔrˌθɒg əˈnæl ɪ ti/, nounor·thog·o·nal·ly, adverb
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2022

How to use orthogonal in a sentence

British Dictionary definitions for orthogonal

orthogonal
/ (ɔːˈθɒɡənəl) /

adjective
relating to, consisting of, or involving right angles; perpendicular
maths
  1. (of a pair of vectors) having a defined scalar product equal to zero
  2. (of a pair of functions) having a defined product equal to zero

Derived forms of orthogonal

orthogonally, adverb
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Scientific definitions for orthogonal

orthogonal
[ ôr-thŏgə-nəl ]

Relating to or composed of right angles.
Relating to a matrix whose transpose equals its inverse.
Relating to a linear transformation that preserves the length of vectors.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Copyright © 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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