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[ mi-nol-uh-jee ] [ mɪˈnɒl ə dʒi ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling


a record or account arranged in the order of a calendar.

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More about menology

Don’t be fooled! Menology is not a half-Greek term meaning “the study of men.” Instead, menology “a record or account arranged in the order of a calendar” comes from Late Greek mēnológion, from Ancient Greek ​​mḗn “month” and -lógion, a derivative of lógos “a word, saying, speech.” The word ​​mḗn is a distant relative of Latin mensis and English month, and all three come from the same root as English moon (and Monday) and menstrual “monthly.” Menology was first recorded in English circa 1605.

how is menology used?

The menologies form a small but distinct group of texts and follow a pattern broadly comparable to Hesiod’s Works and Days, though with much heavier cultic content. For each month, information is given relating to astronomical, religious, social, and other themes such as the expected appearance of a particular migratory bird.

Alasdair Livingstone, “Babylonian Hemerologies and Menologies,” Books of Fate and Popular Culture in Early China, 2017

[M]enologies were, in general, meant to deal with every aspect of daily life, and their content was intended for the common people. Time had its own magic in Mesopotamia, with some texts only listing favorable and unfavorable days.

Marvin Schreiber, “Egalkura and Late Astrology,” Patients and Performative Identities, 2020
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[ joo-koo ] [ ˈdʒu ku ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling


a school, attended in addition to one's regular school, where students prepare for college entrance examinations.

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More about juku

Juku “a school where students prepare for college entrance examinations” is a borrowing from Japanese. In its native language, juku means “private tutoring school” or “cram school” and is a term borrowed from Middle Chinese, in which it once meant “gate room.” Because juku is of Chinese origin, we can see the clear resemblance today between juku and Mandarin shú or Cantonese suk. Juku was first recorded in English in the early 1980s.

how is juku used?

The result is another kind of “exam hell” for these young children: To prepare, many attend juku, or cram schools, a process that requires a huge investment of time and often costs far more than all but the highest echelons of Japanese socioeconomic ladder can afford.

Annabelle Timsit, “Overhauling Japan's High-Stakes University-Admission System,” The Atlantic, January 13, 2018
[Ms Shimomura’s] type of juku is different from Japan’s ubiquitous cramming schools of the same name. Students as young as 15 or as old as 80 come to her home in Fukushima prefecture, where they practise Zen meditation, discuss oriental philosophy and end the day—in one Japanese rite that thankfully endures—with several glasses of sake.

"The 21st-century samurai," The Economist, March 17, 2012
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[ kon-yuh-shen-tee, kog-nuh- ] [ ˌkɒn yəˈʃɛn ti, ˌkɒg nə- ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling

plural noun

persons who have superior knowledge and understanding of a particular field, especially in the fine arts, literature, and world of fashion.

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More about cognoscenti

Cognoscenti “persons who have superior knowledge of a particular field” is the plural of cognoscente, which refers to an individual person with such knowledge. Unlike English, French, and Spanish, which usually add -s or -es to indicate a plural noun, Italian typically changes the final vowel of a word; singular -a often becomes plural -e, while singular -e and -o often become plural -i. The Italian verb meaning “to know” is conoscere, with the present participle conoscente, which lacks the g of cognoscente; the reason for the g is the influence of Latin cognōscere “to know.” Cognoscenti was first recorded in English in the 1770s.

how is cognoscenti used?

In the past few decades a U.S. gastronomic explosion led in part by food TV has the culinary cognoscenti in a dither to define a national food character that includes barbeque, lobster rolls, foraged locavore salads, and molecular gastronomy.

Mary Beth Albright, “Is American Cuisine Destroying Palates?” National Geographic, May 19, 2014

With the U.S. and Cuba restoring diplomatic ties, some art-world cognoscenti are betting that the tiny island could become the next hot corner of the global art market.

Kelly Crow, “Art Collectors Predict ‘Stampede’ to Cuba,” The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 19, 2014
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