When a sentence is introduced by a participial phrase or a dependent clause it is in part or wholly periodic.
A dependent clause in a complex sentence may also be an adjective clause.
Leue (grant, permit) is usually followed by a dependent clause; but lene (lend, grant, give) by an accusative case.
When you add a dependent clause you have a complex sentence.
A subordinate conjunction is one that connects a dependent clause to the principal clause.
But even this fatal conclusion is diluted by a dependent clause.
If the sentence last quoted were inverted, a comma would be placed after the dependent clause.
In a complex sentence, the dependent clause is generally separated from the main clause by a comma.
But when the dependent clause is short and the connection close, the comma may be omitted.
May be used with a dependent clause if this sense is clearly involved: “He claimed that he was the sole surviving heir.”