programming, language, portability
(After the Indonesian island, a source of programming fluid
) A simple, object-oriented
, robust, secure, architecture-neutral
, dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
in the early 1990's (initially for set-top television controllers), and released to the public in 1995.
Java first became popular by being the earliest portable dynamic client-side content for the World-Wide Web
in the form of platform
-independent Java "applets". In the late 1990's and into the 2000's it has also become very popular on the server side, where an entire set of APIs
defines the J2EE
Java is both a set of public specifications (controlled by Sun Microsystems
through the JCP
) and a series of implementations of those specifications.
Java is syntactially similar to C++
without user-definable operator overloading
, (though it does have method
overloading), without multiple inheritance
, and extensive automatic coercions
. It has automatic garbage collection
. Java extends C++
facilities with those of Objective C
for dynamic method resolution
Whereas programs in C++ and similar languages are compiled and linked to platform-specific binary executables, Java programs are typically compiled to portable architecture-neutral bytecode
or ".class" files, which are run using a Java Virtual Machine
. The JVM is also called an interpreter
, though it is more correct to say that it uses Just-In-Time Compilation
to convert the bytecode
into native machine code
, yielding greater efficiency than most interpreted languages, rivalling C++ for many long-running, non-GUI applications. The run-time system is typically written in POSIX
-compliant ANSI C
. Some implementations allow Java class files to be translated into native machine code
during or after compilation.
The Java compiler and linker
both enforce strong type checking
- procedures must be explicitly typed. Java supports the creation of virus
-free, tamper-free systems with authentication
based on public-key encryption
Java has an extensive library of routines for all kinds of programming tasks, rivalling that of other languages.
For example, the "java.net} package supports TCP/IP protocols
. Java applications can access objects across the Internet
almost as easily as on the local file system
. There are also capabilities for several types of distributed applications.
The Java GUI
libraries provide portable interfaces. For example, there is an abstract Window class and implementations of it for Unix
, Microsoft Windows
and the Macintosh
. The "java.awt" and "javax.swing" classes can be used either in Web-based "Applets" or in client-side or "desktop" applications.
There are also packages for developing XML
applications, web services
and other web applications, security
, date and time calculations and I/O formatting, database (JDBC
), and many others.
despite the name.