- 1741–90, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1765–90 (son of Francis I; brother of Leopold II and Marie Antoinette).
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- 1741–90, Holy Roman emperor (1765–90); son of Francis I. He ruled Austria jointly with his mother, Maria Theresa, until her death (1780). He reorganized taxation, abolished serfdom, curtailed the feudal power of the nobles, and asserted his independence from the pope
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