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Sabbath

[sab-uh th] /ˈsæb əθ/
noun
1.
the seventh day of the week, Saturday, as the day of rest and religious observance among Jews and some Christians. Ex. 20:8–11.
2.
the first day of the week, Sunday, similarly observed by most Christians in commemoration of the Resurrection of Christ.
3.
any special day of prayer or rest resembling the Sabbath:
Friday is the Muslim Sabbath.
4.
(sometimes lowercase) a period of rest.
5.
(sometimes lowercase) Demonology. Sabbat.
Origin of Sabbath
900
before 900; Middle English, variant of sabbat, Old English < Latin sabbatum < Greek sábbaton < Hebrew shabbāth rest
Related forms
Sabbathless, adjective
Sabbathlike, adjective
Synonyms
2. See Sunday.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2017.
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British Dictionary definitions for Sabbath

Sabbath

/ˈsæbəθ/
noun
1.
the seventh day of the week, Saturday, devoted to worship and rest from work in Judaism and in certain Christian Churches
2.
Sunday, observed by Christians as the day of worship and rest from work in commemoration of Christ's Resurrection
3.
(not capital) a period of rest
4.
Also called sabbat, witches' Sabbath. a midnight meeting or secret rendezvous for practitioners of witchcraft, sorcery, or devil worship
Word Origin
Old English sabbat, from Latin sabbatum, from Greek sabbaton, from Hebrew shabbāth, from shābath to rest
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for Sabbath
n.

Old English sabat "Saturday as a day of rest," as observed by the Jews, from Latin sabbatum, from Greek sabbaton, from Hebrew shabbath, properly "day of rest," from shabath "he rested." Spelling with -th attested from late 14c., not widespread until 16c.

The Babylonians regarded seventh days as unlucky, and avoided certain activities then; the Jewish observance might have begun as a similar custom. Among European Christians, from the seventh day of the week it began to be applied early 15c. to the first day (Sunday), "though no definite law, either divine or ecclesiastical, directed the change" [Century Dictionary], but elaborate justifications have been made. The change was driven by Christians' celebration of the Lord's resurrection on the first day of the week, a change completed during the Reformation.

The original meaning is preserved in Spanish Sabado, Italian Sabbato, and other languages' names for "Saturday." Hungarian szombat, Rumanian simbata, French samedi, German Samstag "Saturday" are from Vulgar Latin sambatum, from Greek *sambaton, a vulgar nasalized variant of sabbaton. Sabbath-breaking attested from 1650s.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Sabbath in Culture

Sabbath definition


The holy day of rest and reflection observed each Saturday among the Jews. This custom fulfills the third of the Ten Commandments (“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy”). The Sabbath commemorates the last of the seven days of Creation as described in the Book of Genesis, the day God rested from his labors of creating the heavens and the Earth.

Note: Christians have traditionally kept Sunday as a weekly day of rest in adaptation of the Jewish observance, and in commemoration of the Resurrection of Jesus. Some denominations, such as the Seventh-Day Adventists, observe Saturday as the Sabbath.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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14
15
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