# calculus

[kal-kyuh-luh s]

- Mathematics. a method of calculation, especially one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus.
- Pathology. a stone, or concretion, formed in the gallbladder, kidneys, or other parts of the body.
- Also called tartar. Dentistry. a hard, yellowish to brownish-black deposit on teeth formed largely through the mineralization of dead bacteria in dental plaques by the calcium salts in salivary secretions and subgingival transudates.
- calculation; estimation or computation: the calculus of political appeal.

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## Origin of calculus^{}

1610–20; < Latin: pebble, small stone (used in reckoning), equivalent to calc- (stem of calx stone) + -ulus -ule

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

## Examples from the Web for calculi

### Historical Examples

#### Intestinal concretions (calculi or stones in the intestines).

Special Report on Diseases of the HorseUnited States Department of Agriculture

#### Calculi may be globular, ovoid, cylindrical, and truncated cones.

#### Hence the Greek name ψηφοι, and the Roman calculi and scrupuli; from whence scrupus, a table-man, or chessman.

The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of ScotlandDaniel Wilson

#### One case154 is reported in which 7802 calculi were found in the gall-bladder, but they must have been very minute in size.

#### The number of calculi which may be present at any time or be produced in the course of years ranges from one to several thousand.

## calculus

- a branch of mathematics, developed independently by Newton and Leibniz. Both differential calculus and integral calculus are concerned with the effect on a function of an infinitesimal change in the independent variable as it tends to zero
- any mathematical system of calculation involving the use of symbols
- logic an uninterpreted formal systemCompare formal language (def. 2)
- plural -li (-ˌlaɪ) pathol a stonelike concretion of minerals and salts found in ducts or hollow organs of the body

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## Word Origin

C17: from Latin: pebble, stone used in reckoning, from calx small stone, counter

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

## Word Origin and History for calculi

## calculus

### n.

1660s, from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus. Also used from 1732 to mean kidney stones, etc., then generally for "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque. Related: Calculous (adj.).

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Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

## calculus

(kăl′kyə-ləs)- An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder.stone
- Dental tartar.

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The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

## calculus

[kăl′kyə-ləs]

- The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables. See more at calculus of variations differential calculus integral calculus.
- A solid mass, usually composed of inorganic material, formed in a cavity or tissue of the body. Calculi are most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder. Also called stone

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The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

## calculus

The branch of mathematics, usually studied after algebra, that provides a natural method for describing gradual change.

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## Note

Most modern sciences use calculus.

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.