ergative

[ur-guh-tiv]
adjective
  1. Grammar.
    1. (in certain languages, as Basque, Eskimo, and some Caucasian languages) noting a case that indicates the subject of a transitive verb and is distinct from the case indicating the subject of an intransitive verb.
    2. similar to such a case in function or meaning, especially in indicating an agent, as the subject She in She opened the door, in contrast to the subject The door in The door opened.
  2. Linguistics. pertaining to a type of language that has an ergative case or in which the direct object of a transitive verb has the same form as the subject of an intransitive verb.Compare accusative(def 2).
noun Grammar.
  1. the ergative case.
  2. a word in the ergative case.
  3. a form or construction of similar function or meaning.

Origin of ergative

1945–50; < Greek ergát(ēs) worker (see ergate) + -ive
Related formser·ga·tiv·i·ty, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

British Dictionary definitions for ergative

ergative

adjective
  1. denoting a type of verb that takes the same noun as either direct object or as subject, with equivalent meaning. Thus, "fuse" is an ergative verb: "He fused the lights" and "The lights fused" have equivalent meaning
  2. denoting a case of nouns in certain languages, for example, Inuktitut or Basque, marking a noun used interchangeably as either the direct object of a transitive verb or the subject of an intransitive verb
  3. denoting a language that has ergative verbs or ergative nouns
noun
  1. an ergative verb
  2. an ergative noun or case of nouns

Word Origin for ergative

C20: from Greek ergatēs a workman + -ive
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for ergative

1943, grammatical case used for the subjects of transitive verbs (in Eskimo, Basque, Caucasian languages), from Greek ergatos "workman," from ergos "work" (see urge (v.)) + -ive.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper