- An·toine Lau·rent [ahn-twan loh-rahn] /ɑ̃ˈtwan loʊˈrɑ̃/, 1743–94, French scientist: pioneer in the field of chemistry.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018
Examples from the Web for lavoisier
In 1804 he married the widow of the illustrious chemist Lavoisier: he died in 1814.
Lavoisier had ascribed this heat to the oxidation of the food.Fragments of science, V. 1-2
Behind the church we see the statue of Lavoisier, put to death at the Revolution.Historic Paris
Jetta S. Wolff
Probably the influence of Madame Lavoisier had its full effect.The Royal Institution
It might be supposed that Lavoisier would live and die in great honor.Invention
Bradley A. Fiske
- Antoine Laurent (ɑ̃twan lɔrɑ̃). 1743–94, French chemist; one of the founders of modern chemistry. He disproved the phlogiston theory, named oxygen, and discovered its importance in respiration and combustion
- French chemist who is regarded as one of the founders of modern chemistry. In 1778 he discovered that air consists of a mixture of two gases, which he called oxygen and nitrogen. Lavoisier also discovered the law of conservation of mass and devised the modern method of naming chemical compounds. His wife Marie (1758-1836) assisted him with his laboratory work and translated a number of important chemistry texts.
Biography: Antoine Lavoisier's superior organizational skills made it possible for him to interpret and extend the research of other scientists, leading to the important experiments and discoveries that designate him as one of the founders of modern chemistry. He introduced a rigorous experimental approach to the field based on the determination of the weights of reagents and products in chemical reactions. In his Elementary Treatise of Chemistry, published in 1789, he presented a systematic and unified view of new theories and established a system of nomenclature for chemical compounds. His classification of substances laid the foundation for the modern distinction between chemicals and compounds. Lavoisier also disproved the longstanding phlogiston theory of combustion, which for centuries held that a substance called phlogiston, a volatile part of all combustible substances, was released during the process of combustion. By repeating the experiments of Joseph Priestley, Lavoisier demonstrated that during combustion the burning substance combines with a constituent of the air, the gas he named oxygen. He also described the role of oxygen in the respiration of both animals and plants, and he proved that water is made up of oxygen and hydrogen.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Copyright © 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.