Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von (ˈɡɔtfriːt ˈvɪlhɛlm fɔn). 1646–1716, German rationalist philosopher and mathematician. He conceived of the universe as a hierarchy of independent units or monads, synchronized by pre-established harmony. His works include Théodicée (1710) and Monadologia (1714). He also devised a system of calculus, independently of Newton
German philosopher and mathematician who invented the mathematical processes of differentiation and integration, which greatly expanded the field of calculus. Leibniz also established the foundations of probability theory and conceived the idea for a practical calculating machine.