- a four-dimensional space in which three coordinates specify the position of a point in space and the fourth represents the time at which an event occurred at that point
C20: named after Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909), Russian-born German mathematician
- A four-dimensional space-time with no curvature, assumed in the theory of Special Relativity. The curved space-time of General Relativity appears to be a Minkowski space-time at any given point near an observer, much as the Earth appears basically flat in the vicinity of someone standing on a plain. Minkowski space-time is named for Russian-born German mathematician Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909).