adjective, rough·er, rough·est.
verb (used with object), roughed, rough·ing.
verb (used without object), roughed, rough·ing.
Origin of rough
Synonyms for rough
Antonyms for rough
Examples from the Web for rough
Contemporary Examples of rough
Gurley was gunned down on Nov. 20, when a pair of cops was patrolling the rough housing project.Protesters Demand Justice For Gurley As Gap Grows Between Cops and NYC
December 28, 2014
CEO Michael Lynton showed a rough cut of the movie to U.S. officials before moving ahead.Exclusive: Sony Emails Say State Department Blessed Kim Jong-Un Assassination in ‘The Interview’
December 17, 2014
According to contemporary reports, at several of the truces, there were rough soccer matches between the German and British sides.Royals Remember The Christmas Truce of 1914
December 12, 2014
Wahlberg grew up the youngest of nine children in a broken home in the rough Dorchester section of Boston.Mark Wahlberg’s Pardon Plea: A Look Back At His Troubling, Violent, and Racist Rap Sheet
December 7, 2014
The robots can slice through stone and rough out vast blocks of stone while the artisans are sleeping.Damien Hirst’s Army of Geppettos
December 2, 2014
Historical Examples of rough
Bates was a stout sailor, rough in appearance, but with a warm and kindly heart.Brave and Bold
The Mann Ranges are very high and rough, and are composed of reddish granite.Explorations in Australia
War is a rough teacher, but it is evidently the only one for the Continent.
There is crime to be conquered, the rough crime of the streets.
He had become short, I do not say rough in his speech to his wife.Weighed and Wanting
- severe towards
- unfortunate for (a person)
Word Origin for rough
Old English ruh "rough, coarse (of cloth); hairy, shaggy; untrimmed, uncultivated," from West Germanic *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. Middle Dutch ruuch, Dutch ruig, Old High German ruher, German rauh), from Proto-Germanic *rukhaz, from PIE *reue- "to smash, knock down, tear out, dig up" (cf. Sanskrit ruksah "rough;" Latin ruga "wrinkle," ruere "to rush, fall violently, collapse," ruina "a collapse;" Lithuanian raukas "wrinkle," rukti "to shrink").
The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded c.1600. Of places, "riotous, disorderly, characterized by violent action," 1863. Rough draft is from 1690s. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from a style of free-fighting.
late 15c., from rough (adj.). Related: Roughed; roughing. Phrase rough it "submit to hardships" (1768) is originally nautical:
To lie rough; to lie all night in one's clothes: called also roughing it. Likewise to sleep on the bare deck of a ship, when the person is commonly advised to chuse the softest plank. [Grose, "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]
To rough out "shape or plan approximately" is from 1770. To rough up "make rough" is from 1763. To rough (someone) up "beat up, jostle violently" is from 1868. The U.S. football penalty roughing was originally a term from boxing (1866).
c.1200, "broken ground," from rough (adj.). Meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Specific sense in golf is from 1901. Phrase in the rough "in an unfinished or unprocessed condition" (of timber, etc.) is from 1819.
In addition to the idioms beginning with rough
- rough and ready
- rough and tumble
- rough it
- rough on, be
- rough out
- rough up
- diamond in the rough
- ride roughshod over
- take the rough with the smooth
- when the going gets rough