adjective, rough·er, rough·est.
verb (used with object), roughed, rough·ing.
verb (used without object), roughed, rough·ing.
Origin of rough
Synonyms for rough
Antonyms for rough
Examples from the Web for roughly
Contemporary Examples of roughly
These (roughly) $2,500 ceremonies are supposedly about encouraging “positive feelings” on the part of the single brides.Why Singles Should Say ‘I Don’t’ to The Self-Marriage Movement
December 30, 2014
It is a multimillion-dollar business in which roughly 15 million fowl die a year.The History of the Chicken: How This Humble Bird Saved Humanity
December 27, 2014
Since 1987, there have been roughly 1,300 cases filed under the blasphemy laws, according to varied reports.Disco Mullah Blasphemy Row Highlights Pakistan’s Hypocrisy
December 21, 2014
They found that there are roughly 1,900 hydrogen atoms for each deuterium atom in the water on Comet 67P.Are Comets the Origin of Earth’s Oceans?
Matthew R. Francis
December 14, 2014
Roughly one out of every 33 women who enter the federal prison system is pregnant.The GOP’s Hidden Ban on Prison Abortions
December 13, 2014
Historical Examples of roughly
"You'd better not be impudent, young one," said Ben, roughly.Brave and Bold
He took Viviette by the arm and roughly thrust her past the screen.Viviette
William J. Locke
"You let that kid fight his own battles," said Henry Anderson roughly.Her Father's Daughter
But this stranger who had roughly shoved against him, had not paused in his rude progress.The Foolish Lovers
St. John G. Ervine
Roughly the mechanician shook the man, dragging him to his feet.The Black Bag
Louis Joseph Vance
- severe towards
- unfortunate for (a person)
Word Origin for rough
Old English ruh "rough, coarse (of cloth); hairy, shaggy; untrimmed, uncultivated," from West Germanic *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. Middle Dutch ruuch, Dutch ruig, Old High German ruher, German rauh), from Proto-Germanic *rukhaz, from PIE *reue- "to smash, knock down, tear out, dig up" (cf. Sanskrit ruksah "rough;" Latin ruga "wrinkle," ruere "to rush, fall violently, collapse," ruina "a collapse;" Lithuanian raukas "wrinkle," rukti "to shrink").
The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded c.1600. Of places, "riotous, disorderly, characterized by violent action," 1863. Rough draft is from 1690s. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from a style of free-fighting.
late 15c., from rough (adj.). Related: Roughed; roughing. Phrase rough it "submit to hardships" (1768) is originally nautical:
To lie rough; to lie all night in one's clothes: called also roughing it. Likewise to sleep on the bare deck of a ship, when the person is commonly advised to chuse the softest plank. [Grose, "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]
To rough out "shape or plan approximately" is from 1770. To rough up "make rough" is from 1763. To rough (someone) up "beat up, jostle violently" is from 1868. The U.S. football penalty roughing was originally a term from boxing (1866).
c.1200, "broken ground," from rough (adj.). Meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Specific sense in golf is from 1901. Phrase in the rough "in an unfinished or unprocessed condition" (of timber, etc.) is from 1819.
In addition to the idioms beginning with rough
- rough and ready
- rough and tumble
- rough it
- rough on, be
- rough out
- rough up
- diamond in the rough
- ride roughshod over
- take the rough with the smooth
- when the going gets rough