adjective, rough·er, rough·est.
verb (used with object), roughed, rough·ing.
verb (used without object), roughed, rough·ing.
Origin of rough
Synonyms for rough
Antonyms for rough
Related Words for roughnesscoarseness, break, nick, scratch, crack, unevenness, shagginess, hairiness, harshness, severity, rudeness, hardness, gruffness, crudeness, brusqueness, acrimony, asperity, irregularity, crudity, bristling
Examples from the Web for roughness
Contemporary Examples of roughness
If you call this roughness, I'm sorry, but this Tayyip Erdogan won't change.Police Storm Istanbul’s Taksim Square
June 11, 2013
But for some there remains a brutality here, a roughness born of systematic, racialized oppression and desperate poverty.The Oprah School on Trial
Gretchen L. Wilson
October 27, 2008
Historical Examples of roughness
And yet sometimes the men of the sea in their roughness are imaginative.A Spirit in Prison
It brought him nearer to the land, which, with all its roughness, he felt to be the true life for him.The Night Riders
Also remove any roughness on surface "B" caused by pliers when cover was removed.The Automobile Storage Battery
O. A. Witte
It is a great pity you should ever be called to bear any of the roughness of life.Victor's Triumph
Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth
Vose explained that the leakage was due to the roughness of the trail.A Waif of the Mountains
Edward S. Ellis
- severe towards
- unfortunate for (a person)
Word Origin for rough
Old English ruh "rough, coarse (of cloth); hairy, shaggy; untrimmed, uncultivated," from West Germanic *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. Middle Dutch ruuch, Dutch ruig, Old High German ruher, German rauh), from Proto-Germanic *rukhaz, from PIE *reue- "to smash, knock down, tear out, dig up" (cf. Sanskrit ruksah "rough;" Latin ruga "wrinkle," ruere "to rush, fall violently, collapse," ruina "a collapse;" Lithuanian raukas "wrinkle," rukti "to shrink").
The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded c.1600. Of places, "riotous, disorderly, characterized by violent action," 1863. Rough draft is from 1690s. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from a style of free-fighting.
late 15c., from rough (adj.). Related: Roughed; roughing. Phrase rough it "submit to hardships" (1768) is originally nautical:
To lie rough; to lie all night in one's clothes: called also roughing it. Likewise to sleep on the bare deck of a ship, when the person is commonly advised to chuse the softest plank. [Grose, "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]
To rough out "shape or plan approximately" is from 1770. To rough up "make rough" is from 1763. To rough (someone) up "beat up, jostle violently" is from 1868. The U.S. football penalty roughing was originally a term from boxing (1866).
c.1200, "broken ground," from rough (adj.). Meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Specific sense in golf is from 1901. Phrase in the rough "in an unfinished or unprocessed condition" (of timber, etc.) is from 1819.
In addition to the idioms beginning with rough
- rough and ready
- rough and tumble
- rough it
- rough on, be
- rough out
- rough up
- diamond in the rough
- ride roughshod over
- take the rough with the smooth
- when the going gets rough