adjective, rough·er, rough·est.
verb (used with object), roughed, rough·ing.
verb (used without object), roughed, rough·ing.
- rouge croix,
- rouge dragon,
- rouge et noir,
- rouget cell,
- rouget de lisle,
- rough and ready,
- rough and tumble,
- rough bluegrass,
- rough breathing,
- rough collie
Origin of rough
Examples from the Web for roughness
If you call this roughness, I'm sorry, but this Tayyip Erdogan won't change.
But for some there remains a brutality here, a roughness born of systematic, racialized oppression and desperate poverty.
The roughness of the surface of the leaves of grasses is due to the presence of very minute short hairs borne by the epidermis.A Handbook of Some South Indian Grasses|Rai Bahadur K. Ranga Achariyar
But the theme by amplification became nauseous, and he at length with some roughness put an end to the tale.Caleb Williams|William Godwin
Let them examine the bark of the trunk and describe its colour and roughness.Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Nature Study|Ontario Ministry of Education
It has all the appearance of it in roughness, thickness, and very unequal opacity.
His constancy to his theories, whether of faith or art, was English; his roughness of form was positively early Teutonic.The Poetry Of Robert Browning|Stopford A. Brooke
- severe towards
- unfortunate for (a person)
Word Origin for rough
Old English ruh "rough, coarse (of cloth); hairy, shaggy; untrimmed, uncultivated," from West Germanic *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. Middle Dutch ruuch, Dutch ruig, Old High German ruher, German rauh), from Proto-Germanic *rukhaz, from PIE *reue- "to smash, knock down, tear out, dig up" (cf. Sanskrit ruksah "rough;" Latin ruga "wrinkle," ruere "to rush, fall violently, collapse," ruina "a collapse;" Lithuanian raukas "wrinkle," rukti "to shrink").
The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded c.1600. Of places, "riotous, disorderly, characterized by violent action," 1863. Rough draft is from 1690s. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from a style of free-fighting.
late 15c., from rough (adj.). Related: Roughed; roughing. Phrase rough it "submit to hardships" (1768) is originally nautical:
To lie rough; to lie all night in one's clothes: called also roughing it. Likewise to sleep on the bare deck of a ship, when the person is commonly advised to chuse the softest plank. [Grose, "Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," 1788]
To rough out "shape or plan approximately" is from 1770. To rough up "make rough" is from 1763. To rough (someone) up "beat up, jostle violently" is from 1868. The U.S. football penalty roughing was originally a term from boxing (1866).
c.1200, "broken ground," from rough (adj.). Meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Specific sense in golf is from 1901. Phrase in the rough "in an unfinished or unprocessed condition" (of timber, etc.) is from 1819.
In addition to the idioms beginning with rough
- rough and ready
- rough and tumble
- rough it
- rough on, be
- rough out
- rough up
- diamond in the rough
- ride roughshod over
- take the rough with the smooth
- when the going gets rough