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sad

[sad]
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adjective, sad·der, sad·dest.
  1. affected by unhappiness or grief; sorrowful or mournful: to feel sad because a close friend has moved away.
  2. expressive of or characterized by sorrow: sad looks; a sad song.
  3. causing sorrow: a sad disappointment; sad news.
  4. (of color) somber, dark, or dull; drab.
  5. deplorably bad; sorry: a sad attempt.
  6. Obsolete. firm or steadfast.
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Origin of sad

before 1000; Middle English; Old English sæd grave, heavy, weary, orig. sated, full; cognate with German satt, Gothic saths full, satisfied; akin to Latin satis enough, satur sated, Greek hádēn enough. See satiate, saturate
Related formssad·ly, adverbsad·ness, noun

Synonyms

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1. unhappy, despondent, disconsolate, discouraged, gloomy, downcast, downhearted, depressed, dejected, melancholy.

Antonyms

1. happy.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018

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British Dictionary definitions for sadness

SAD

abbreviation for
  1. seasonal affective disorder
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sad

adjective sadder or saddest
  1. feeling sorrow; unhappy
  2. causing, suggestive, or expressive of such feelingsa sad story
  3. unfortunate; unsatisfactory; shabby; deplorableher clothes were in a sad state
  4. British informal ludicrously contemptible; pathetiche's a sad, boring little wimp
  5. (of pastry, cakes, etc) not having risen fully; heavy
  6. (of a colour) lacking brightness; dull or dark
  7. archaic serious; grave
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verb
  1. NZ to express sadness or displeasure strongly
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Derived Formssadly, adverbsadness, noun

Word Origin

Old English sæd weary; related to Old Norse sathr, Gothic saths, Latin satur, satis enough
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for sadness

n.

early 14c., "seriousness," from sad + -ness. Meaning "sorrowfulness" is c.1500, perhaps c.1400.

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sad

adj.

Old English sæd "sated, full, having had one's fill (of food, drink, fighting, etc.), weary of," from Proto-Germanic *sathaz (cf. Old Norse saðr, Middle Dutch sat, Dutch zad, Old High German sat, German satt, Gothic saþs "satiated, sated, full"), from PIE *seto- (cf. Latin satis "enough, sufficient," Greek hadros "thick, bulky," Old Church Slavonic sytu, Lithuanian sotus "satiated," Old Irish saith "satiety," sathach "sated"), from root *sa- "to satisfy" (cf. Sanskrit a-sinvan "insatiable").

Sense development passed through the meaning "heavy, ponderous" (i.e. "full" mentally or physically), and "weary, tired of" before emerging c.1300 as "unhappy." An alternative course would be through the common Middle English sense of "steadfast, firmly established, fixed" (e.g. sad-ware "tough pewter vessels") and "serious" to "grave." In the main modern sense, it replaced Old English unrot, negative of rot "cheerful, glad."

Meaning "very bad" is from 1690s. Slang sense of "inferior, pathetic" is from 1899; sad sack is 1920s, popularized by World War II armed forces (specifically by cartoon character invented by Sgt. George Baker, 1942, and published in U.S. Armed Forces magazine "Yank"), probably a euphemistic shortening of common military slang phrase sad sack of shit.

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Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

sadness in Medicine

SAD

abbr.
  1. seasonal affective disorder
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The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.