Word of the Day

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

farouche

[ fa-roosh ]

adjective

French. sullenly unsociable or shy.

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What is the origin of farouche?

The adjective farouche, accented on the second syllable, shows that it is still an unnaturalized borrowing from French. The Old French adjective faroche, forasche derives from the Late Latin forāsticus “belonging outside or out of doors” (i.e., not fit to be inside), a derivative of the adverb and preposition forās (also forīs) “(to the) outside, abroad.” A similar semantic development can be seen in savage, from Middle French salvage, sauvage, from Medieval Latin salvāticus (Latin silvāticus) “pertaining to the woods.” Farouche entered English in the 18th century.

how is farouche used?

He’s a bit farouche, but I like the way he enthuses about what interests him. It’s not put on.

Richard Aldington, Death of a Hero, 1929

Many of the women in these stories are farouche–they’re outsiders, they’re troubled, they lack polish, they dream too much.

Joy Williams, "Introducion" Fantastic Women: 18 tales of the surreal and the sublime from Tin House, 2011

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Tuesday, June 26, 2018

benedict

[ ben-i-dikt ]

noun

a newly married man, especially one who has been long a bachelor.

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What is the origin of benedict?

Benedict is a familiar correction of Benedick (Benedicke), the former confirmed bachelor newly married in Shakespeare’s Much Ado about Nothing (1600). Benedict as a common noun entered English in the 19th century.

how is benedict used?

It had, when I first went to town, just become the fashion for young men of fortune to keep house, and to give their bachelor establishments the importance hitherto reserved for the household of a Benedict.

Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Devereux, 1829

“Why are you so anxious for all England to be informed that you are a Benedict?” I enquired scornfully.

Alan Dale, A Marriage Below Zero, 1889
Monday, June 25, 2018

scupper

[ skuhp-er ]

verb

British. Informal. to prevent from happening or succeeding; ruin; wreck.

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What is the origin of scupper?

The origin of the verb scupper is uncertain. It originated as military slang (“to surprise and slaughter; utterly defeat”). The verb scupper may be a development from the noun scupper “an opening in a ship’s side even with the deck to allow water to flow away,” but the semantic development is unclear. Scupper entered English in the 19th century.

how is scupper used?

A row between the EEC and the US is threatening to scupper the UN Convention on the Ozone Layer, which was to have been agreed in Vienna next month.

, "Ozone agreement up in the air," New Scientist, February 7, 1985

McMaster has tried to prevent his celebrity from scuppering his career.

Patrick Radden Keefe, "McMaster and Commander," The New Yorker, April 30, 2018
Sunday, June 24, 2018

edentate

[ ee-den-teyt ]

adjective

toothless.

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What is the origin of edentate?

Edentate means “lacking teeth, toothless,” a neutral term; it is also used in taxonomic names for an order of mammals lacking front teeth, e.g. sloths, armadillos, another neutral sense. The origin of edentate is the Latin adjective ēdentātus, the past participle of the verb ēdentāre “to knock (someone’s) teeth out,” definitely not a neutral sense. Edentate entered English in the 19th century.

how is edentate used?

As would have been the case a million years ago, a typical colonist can expect to be edentate by the time he or she is thirty years old, having suffered many skull-cracking toothaches on the way.

Kurt Vonnegut, Galápagos, 1985

Anyway, an edentate man led a bloated, mouth-foaming goat down a road webbed with knee-deep gullies.

Aleksandar Hemon, The Lazarus Project, 2008
Saturday, June 23, 2018

backstairs

[ bak-stairz ]

adjective

secret, underhanded, or scandalous: backstairs gossip.

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What is the origin of backstairs?

Backstairs was first recorded in 1635-45. It’s the adjectival extension of the noun back stairs.

how is backstairs used?

I say to Lord Hartington before you all, not by any backstairs intrigue and not by any secret negotiations, but in the face of this great meeting held in this great town and before all of England … “Come over and help us!”

Herbert Maxwell, "Lord Randolph Churchill," The National Review, Vol. XXV, March to August 1895

He would never believe it–it was a nasty piece of backstairs gossip!

Upton Sinclair, The Metropolis, 1908
Friday, June 22, 2018

pellucid

[ puh-loo-sid ]

adjective

clear in meaning, expression, or style: a pellucid way of writing.

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What is the origin of pellucid?

English pellucid comes from the Latin adjective pellūcidus (the usual Latin spelling is perlūcidus) “very clear, transparent.” The Latin adjective lūcidus is thoroughly naturalized in English lucid, but the Latin prefix and preposition per- is worth explanation. In Latin per- is used to intensify adjectives, adverbs, and verbs, e.g., perbonus “very good, excellent,” perbrevis “very short,” perbene “very well,” perbellē “very charmingly,” and percelebrāre “to make thoroughly known.” The Greek prefix and preposition perí- serves the same purpose, as in Periklês (c495-429 b.c.), the Athenian statesman, from the adjective perikleês “very famous.” Pellucid entered English in the 17th century.

how is pellucid used?

His art is highly complex, but its expression is so pellucid, so simple, that we can see only its body, never the mechanism of its body.

Edward Garnett, "Introduction," The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1906

Trump’s ramblings about Vladi­mir Putin were positively pellucid in their clarity compared with his March 29 comments on the U.S.-South Korea trade deal …

Max Boot, "What on earth is Trump saying?" Washington Post, April 11, 2018
Thursday, June 21, 2018

summerize

[ suhm-uh-rahyz ]

verb

to prepare (a house, car, etc.) so as to counteract the hot weather of summer: to summerize a house by adding air conditioning.

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What is the origin of summerize?

In the late 18th century, summerize meant “to spend the summer,” a sense rarely used nowadays. In the mid-19th century in the U.S. in colloquial usage, summerize acquired its usual meaning “to prepare for summer.”

how is summerize used?

Swap out the stiff white shirt for button-downs in mellower colors. “If you’re in finance, it’s hard to make a big fashion statement, but this is a good way to summerize your wardrobe,” says Coats.

, "7 stylish office looks for summer (including 4 that will cool off even the strictest of dress codes)," Forbes, June 7, 2017

The spark plugs don’t need to be changed for three years, and the motor can “summerize” itself by fogging the cylinders with oil when you put your machine away in the spring.

Ezra Dyer, "Dashing Through the Snow," New York Times, January 29, 2009

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