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[ joo-buh-luhnt ] [ ˈdʒu bə lənt ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling


showing great joy, satisfaction, or triumph; rejoicing; exultant.

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What is the origin of jubilant?

Jubilant “showing great joy” comes from the Latin verb jūbilāre “to shout for joy, whoop.” Though the origin of jūbilāre is uncertain, the most popular hypothesis is that the word is based on an ancient Indo-European exclamation of joy resembling “yu” (compare Ancient Greek iūgḗ “howling”), perhaps on the pattern of sībilāre “to hiss,” as in sibilant, which describes consonants such as s and z. Despite the similar spelling, jubilant is not related to the noun jubilee “the celebration of an anniversary”; instead, jubilee, from Latin jūbilaeus, was adapted from Ancient Greek iōbēlaîos, with the vowel changes because of the influence of jūbilāre. While jubilant appears to be of Indo-European origin, jubilee ultimately derives from Hebrew yōbhēl “ram, ram’s horn, trumpet.” Jubilant was first recorded in English in the 1660s.

how is jubilant used?

“I don’t care if it is raining. My mother said I could stay until 10 o’clock.” That’s what a jubilant child at one of Milwaukee’s first Juneteenth celebrations told a Milwaukee Journal reporter in 1972. It was just a glimpse into the early days of a longstanding annual event celebrating Black culture and ringing in the summer season, with performances, food and a variety of vendors.

Asha Prihar, “Milwaukee was one of the first northern U.S. cities to have a Juneteenth celebration, here's how it has grown,” USA Today, June 19, 2020

Some people told me they attended Juneteenth celebrations every year. Others told me that they look forward to seeing joyous photos and jubilant videos from Juneteenth celebrations throughout the United States, even if they did not attend them in person. Many reported that social media has made the day and its celebrations more visible.

Dolly Chugh, “What's Juneteenth? A Guide To Celebrating America's Second Independence Day,” Forbes, June 19, 2018
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[ pa-truh-nim-ik ] [ ˌpæ trəˈnɪm ɪk ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling


a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor, especially by the addition of a suffix or prefix indicating descent.

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What is the origin of patronymic?

Patronymic “a name derived from the name of a male ancestor” is an adaptation of the Ancient Greek term patrōnymikós “named after one’s father,” which is equivalent to patḗr (stem patr-) “father” and -ōnymos “having the kind of name specified,” plus the adjectival suffix -ikos. The female equivalent of patronymic is the recent Word of the Day metronymic (also spelled matronymic by analogy with Latin mater “mother”). Patronymics in English typically contain the suffix -son, as in Jackson or Johnson, while similar suffixes like -sen and -sson appear in Germanic languages such as German and Icelandic. Meanwhile, Irish and Scottish Gaelic use Mac- (often anglicized as Mc-), as in MacDonald and McIver, though the Anglo-Norman element Fitz- (ultimately from Latin filius “son”), as in Fitzgerald and Fitzsimmons, appears as well. Portuguese and Spanish respectively feature -es and -ez, as in Gonzales and López, which come from the Latin possessive ending -is “of.” Patronymic was first recorded in English circa 1610.

how is patronymic used?

At Taigh Sgoile na Drochaide, …. [c]hildren happily sing, count and play in Gaelic, using the Montessori model that encourages self-directed learning. Some of them arrived in September speaking only English, and have quickly learned fundamentals such as pronunciation and patronymics–the system of formal names derived from male ancestors, an important feature of Gaelic culture.

Greg Mercer, “A small Cape Breton schoolhouse offers hope for the future of Gaelic in Canada,” Globe and Mail, January 3, 2022

Activist Altyn Kapalova says she broke “patriarchic norms” in Kyrgyzstan by giving her three children “middle names” that derive from her own first name. The matronymics on the children’s new birth certificates replaced the traditional patronymics that originated from their fathers’ first names. Kapalova, 37, also gave her children–who are 5, 10, and 15 years old–her surname.

“Kyrgyz Mother Takes On The Patriarchy By Giving Her Children Her Own Name,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, March 4, 2021
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[ gib-lee ] [ ˈgɪb li ] Show IPA Phonetic Respelling


a hot dust-bearing wind of the North African desert.

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What is the origin of ghibli?

Ghibli “a hot wind of the North African desert” is a loanword from Libyan Arabic gibli “south wind,” which is equivalent to standard Arabic qiblī (alternatively translated as qibliyy) “southern.” The reason for the h in ghibli is because of Italian, which borrowed ghibli from Arabic; because g before e or i is pronounced like “j” in Italian, an h is added to preserve the hard “g” sound. Despite the presence of the h, when visionary animator and director Hayao Miyazaki borrowed the name for his film studio, Studio Ghibli, he transliterated the name into Japanese as Jiburi. Ghibli was first recorded in English in the early 19th century.

how is ghibli used?

There are other, less constant winds that change direction, that can knock down horse and rider and realign themselves anticlockwise. The bist roz leaps into Afghanistan for 170 days—burying villages. There is the hot, dry ghibli from Tunis, which rolls and rolls and produces a nervous condition. The haboob—a Sudan dust storm that dresses in bright yellow walls a thousand metres high and is followed by rain.

Michael Ondaatje, The English Patient, 1992

Despite his intentions the night before, Emilio Busi woke up early and in an ugly mood because of the heat, the noise of the ghibli, and the thoughts that would not leave him alone. He left his house behind the cathedral and went on foot to the market, trying to protect his eyes and mouth from the sand. His long hair flapped around in the wind, and his large horn-rimmed glasses acted as a screen.

Roberto Costantini, The Root of All Evil, translated by N. S. Thompson, 2016
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