Word of the Day

Tuesday, January 07, 2020

oneiric

[ oh-nahy-rik ]

adjective

of or relating to dreams.

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What is the origin of oneiric?

The English adjective oneiric derives from the Greek noun óneiros “dream, the god of dreams.” Óneiros itself is a later derivative from the noun ónar “dream, fortune-telling dream; in a dream.” Oneiromancy is divination through dreams; oneirocriticism is the interpretation of dreams. Ónar has relatives in only two other Indo-European languages: Albanian ëndërrë (the ë represents schwa) and Armenian anurj, both meaning “dream” (linguists have recognized for nearly a century features of phonology, morphology, and vocabulary shared only by Greek and Armenian). Oneiric entered English in the mid-19th century.

how is oneiric used?

The clouds are pregnant and always in bloom, like oneiric cauliflowers ….

Henry Miller, The Air-Conditioned Nightmare, 1945

Leonardo’s world was atomistic, volatile, constantly in flux. At the same time, it was also surprising and oneiric, like scenes from a daydream, and this is how he depicted that world in his art.

Maria H. Loh, "Five Hundred Years After Leonardo Da Vinci's Death, His Work Offers New Environmental Insights," Art in America, October 1, 2019
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Monday, January 06, 2020

rax

[ raks ]

verb (used without object)

to stretch oneself, as after sleeping.

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What is the origin of rax?

The verb rax “to stretch oneself, as after sleeping,” is used in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Rax comes from Middle English raxen, rasken (Old English racsan, raxan). Raxan is from the same root as rack “a bar, framework of bars” and is akin to the verb reccan, reccean “to stretch, extend.” Rax dates from the Old English period.

how is rax used?

The quenis dog begowthe to rax

William Dunbar (c1460–c1520), "Of a Dance in the Quenis Chalmer," The Poems of William Dunbar, 1907

On easy chair that pamper’d lie, / Wi’ banefu’ viands gustit high, / And turn an’ fauld their weary clay, / To rax an’ gaunt the live-lang day.

Robert Fergusson (1750—1774), "Hame Content," The Poetical Works of Robert Fergusson, 1800
Sunday, January 05, 2020

orbicular

[ awr-bik-yuh-ler ]

adjective

like an orb; circular; ringlike; spherical; rounded.

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What is the origin of orbicular?

The uncommon adjective orbicular ultimately comes from the rare Late Latin adjective orbiculāris “circular, orbicular,” which occurs in zoological and botanical texts. Orbiculāris is a derivative of orbiculus “small disk or ring, small wheel or pulley.” Orbiculus is a diminutive of the noun orbis “ring, disk, hoop, millstone, table, tabletop (i.e., a two-dimensional figure), sphere, ball, globe (i.e., describing a heavenly body).” In English, orbicular is about as restricted in usage as it is in Latin, occurring in anatomy, physiology, botany, and zoology. Orbicular entered English in the 15th century.

how is orbicular used?

The whole orbicular World hangs by a golden chain from that part of the battlements of Heaven whence the angels fell.

Walter Alexander Raleigh, Milton, 1900

What would be thought of a zoologist who should describe the feet of the web-footed birds as orbicular disks, divided to a great or less extent?

"On the Natural System of Botany," Magazine of Botany and Gardening, British and Foreign, Vol. 2, No. 20, 1834
Saturday, January 04, 2020

welp

[ welp ]

interjection

Nonstandard.

an informal variant of well used to indicate disappointment, resignation, or acceptance at the beginning of an utterance: Welp, this might not work out for us after all.

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What is the origin of welp?

The etymological explanation of welp is accurate, if wonky: welp is a form of well as an isolated or emphatic utterance, with an excrescent p representing closing of the lips, creating an unreleased labial stop, as also in nope, yep, and yup. Excrescent consonants are pretty common: the usual one in English is t, as in amongst, midst, and whilst. Excrescent t also occurs in ancient Greek and Sanskrit. German Sekt “champagne” derives from French vin sec “dry wine” and shows the same excrescent t. Welp is first recorded in English in the mid-1940s but doubtless has been around far longer.

how is welp used?

Pitt smiles and bluntly states, “There is no future.” Welp.

Avery Matera, "Brad Pitt Makes a Statement About Climate Change by Channeling a Weatherman," W, June 7, 2017

Knowing that I’ll get to retire is such a “Bitter Sweet Symphony.” Welp, time for another day of answering e-mails.

Alex Schmidt, "Just Another Nineties Workday," The New Yorker, September 26, 2019
Friday, January 03, 2020

hibernaculum

[ hahy-ber-nak-yuh-luhm ]

noun

winter quarters, as of a hibernating animal.

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What is the origin of hibernaculum?

Hibernaculum comes directly from Latin hībernāculum, a derivative of the adjective hībernus “wintry,” itself a derivative of hiems “winter.” Nowadays hibernaculum is restricted pretty much to zoology, especially referring to the winter quarters of a hibernating animal (some students of Latin may recall reading about Julius Caesar leading his troops to safety, if not comfort, into their hībernācula “winter quarters”). The inflectional stem of hiems is hiem-, which is close to Sanskrit hima– in himālaya “abode of snow,” a compound of himá– “snow” and ālaya “dwelling, abode.” Hibernaculum entered English in the late 17th century.

how is hibernaculum used?

It retires to its hibernaculum when the cold weather has fairly set in, and comes generally out in early Spring.

J. Duns, "Hibernation of Mammals," Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, January 1885

The bears spent the winter in a hibernaculum—basically a big box.

Joe Palca, "Hibernating Bears 'A Metabolic Marvel'," NPR, February 18, 2011
Thursday, January 02, 2020

splore

[ splawr, splohr ]

noun

Scot.

a frolic; revel; carousal.

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What is the origin of splore?

The Scots excel at having words and phrases of obscure origin, and splore is one of them, but because Robert Burns uses the word, it’s a keeper. Splore may be a shortening of explore, but that is just a guess. Splore entered English in the 18th century.

how is splore used?

… it’s only a hunter’s shanty, but it has seen many a merry splore in its time ….

Phillip Ruysdale, A Pilgrimage Over the Prairies, 1863

The morn’s Auld Yule, you know, and like enough the folk have kept him to join in some splore.

Charles Gibbon, For Lack of Gold, 1873
Wednesday, January 01, 2020

twenty-twenty

[ twen-tee-twen-tee, twuhn-tee-twuhn-tee ]

adjective

keenly or acutely perceptive: an opinion based on twenty-twenty hindsight.

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What is the origin of twenty-twenty?

Twenty-twenty “keenly or acutely perceptive,” as is often remarked of the advantages of hindsight, has its roots in vision. In ophthalmology, twenty-twenty means “having normal visual acuity,” and is based on the Snellen chart developed by Dutch ophthalmologist Herman Snellen in 1862. Many will recognize this chart as the array of letters one reads when taking an eye test. Snellen calculated fractions to determine visual acuity, or the clarity or sharpness of one’s vision, and twenty-twenty refers to the fraction that corresponds to what someone considered to have normal vision can see at a distance of 20 feet. By the middle of the 20th century, twenty-twenty was a jazz term meaning excellent. By the early 1960s, the disillusioned, regretful expression twenty-twenty hindsight had emerged in the business world.

how is twenty-twenty used?

Yes, well don’t forget, sir, we’re viewing this with twenty-twenty hindsight, but at the time no one gave a thought to geckos or what they ate—they were just another fact of life in the tropics.

T. C. Boyle, "Top of the Food Chain," Harper's, April 1993

And sure, with twenty-twenty hindsight, I know I could have swum out from underneath the boat, but at that moment it didn’t occur to me.

Jodi Picoult, House Rules, 2010

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