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producing or bearing pollen.
Those who suffer from rose fever in the spring or hay fever in the fall may be familiar with polliniferous “producing or bearing pollen,” the cause of their discomfort. Polliniferous, also spelled polleniferous, comes from Latin pollen (inflectional stem pollin-) “fine flour, mill dust, dust” and the combining form –ferous “bearing, producing.” The pol- in Latin pollen is a derivative of the Proto-Indo-European root pel-, pol– “dust, ground grain, meal”; Latin pol(l)enta “barley meal, groats” becomes Italian polenta, originally “grain made of barley or chestnuts,” but now “cornmeal, corn flour, cornmeal porridge,” which English adopted in the 18th century. The combining form –ferous is a derivative of the Latin verb ferre “to bear, carry,” from the widespread Proto-Indo-European root bher-, bhor-, bhṛ-, appearing in Sanskrit bhárati “he carries,” in Greek as phérein “to carry,” in Proto-Germanic as beran (Old English beran, Modern English “to bear”), Old Irish biru “I carry,” Armenian eber “he carried,” and Old Church Slavonic berǫ “I carry.” Polliniferous entered English in the beginning of the 19th century.
Every observing person who has given attention to the matter has noticed that bees visit berries, it is necessary to intermix polliniferous plants quite liberally if we wish good crops.
When trees, weeds or grasses release pollen, it floats through the air and eventually settles on the mast cells. The second grains of pollen deliver the finishing blow: they follow their polliniferous cousins and release a protein which causes inflammation of the blood vessels.
of or relating to trees; treelike.
Arboreal, “relating to trees; treelike; living in or among trees,” comes from the Latin adjective arboreus “pertaining to trees; wooden,” a derivative of the noun arbor (inflectional stem arbor-) “tree, tree trunk, trees, timber, gallows, (ship’s) mast, (wooden) beam or post.” Latin arbor has no reliable etymology. The original meaning of arboreal is “relating to trees”; the sense “living in or among trees” dates from the first half of the 19th century. One must not confuse the Latin noun with arbor “leafy, shady recess formed by tree branches,” which comes from Old French herbier, erbier “grassy place,” with Late Latin herbārium “dried plants, herbarium,” a derivative of herba “grass, small plant, herb.” Arboreal entered English in the second half of the 17th century.
Like an arboreal matchmaker, a forester could take seeds from spruces or lodgepole pines at a low elevation, say, and plant them farther upslope.
Gaps in the treetops might even curb the spread of leaf-munching insects, parasitic vines, or infectious disease. In some ways, crown shyness is the arboreal version of social distancing …
hard or impossible to manage; stubbornly disobedient.
Refractory, “stubborn, obstinate,” is a respelling (or even a misspelling) of earlier refractary, which comes straight from Latin refractārius, with the same senses. Refractārius is a derivative of refractus, the past participle of the verb refringere “to break, break back, break open,” a compound of the prefix re– “again, back again, back” and the simple verb frangere “to break, shatter, smash.” Refractary entered English in the second half of the 16th century; the spelling refractory first occurs in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1602).
He knew the game, and could conquer the most refractory lion with a broom handle—not outside the cage, but inside and locked in.
“She can’t seem to get from A to B, and she always listens to my advice and doesn’t do it,” Ms. Stanger continued about the refractory client …