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phobia

[ foh-bee-uh ]
/ ˈfoʊ bi ə /
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noun

an intense, persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, situation, or person that manifests in physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, rapid heartbeat, or shortness of breath, and that motivates avoidance behavior.
an aversion toward, dislike of, or disrespect for a thing, idea, person, or group.

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Compare specific phobia.

Origin of phobia

First recorded in 1780–90; extracted from nouns ending in -phobia

historical usage of phobia

See -phobia.

Definition for phobia (2 of 2)

-phobia

a combining form meaning “fear,” occurring in loanwords from Greek (hydrophobia); on this model, used in the names of anxiety disorders that have the general sense “dread of, aversion toward” that specified by the initial element (agoraphobia); on the same model, used in words that name hostility toward a thing or idea, or a specific group, with the sense “antipathy toward or dislike of, disrespect or disdain for” the object or people specified by the initial element (technophobia; xenophobia).

Origin of -phobia

From Latin, from Greek, equivalent to -phob(os) “panic fear” + -ia noun suffix; see origin at -phobe, -ia

historical usage of -phobia

Normal fears can be adaptive for survival and evolution. Fearing animals or dangerous natural environments can inform behaviors that keep people safe. However, when a normal fear becomes extreme, out of proportion to the stimulus, persistent, or irrational, it is considered a phobia. Specific phobias are named with a root that describes the trigger stimulus, plus the combining form -phobia. Some of these -phobia words are well-known: arachnophobia, claustrophobia. Others are novel combinations that use the common combining form -phobia to name uncommon fears: alliumphobia, xocolatophobia. Despite knowing that their fear is disproportionate or irrational, people suffering from a specific phobia have uncontrolled physical reactions including rapid heartbeat, trembling, sweating, and difficulty breathing.
There is another category of words that use the combining form -phobia to simply make antonyms of words that use the combining form -philia to describe affinity, love, or attraction, as Anglophobia versus Anglophilia. These -phobia words are not associated with a physical fear response. Instead, they indicate an aversion or distaste: ergophobia, sitophobia.
In many cases, these words indicate intolerance toward a group of people as defined by nationality, ancestry, sexual identity or orientation, creed, or race: homophobia, transphobia, Islamophobia. Though there is an element of fear when interacting with the unknown or the Other, words in this category are not primarily about anxiety; rather, they are commonly associated with hostility. The use of -phobia words to describe negative attitudes toward groups of people is therefore frequently criticized. Advocates and activists representing these groups recommend using the prefix anti- instead, in words such as antigay, antitrans, anti-Islam.
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021

Example sentences from the Web for phobia

British Dictionary definitions for phobia (1 of 2)

phobia
/ (ˈfəʊbɪə) /

noun

psychiatry an abnormal intense and irrational fear of a given situation, organism, or object

Word Origin for phobia

C19: from Greek phobos fear

British Dictionary definitions for phobia (2 of 2)

-phobia

n combining form

indicating an extreme abnormal fear of or aversion toacrophobia; claustrophobia

Derived forms of -phobia

-phobic, adj combining form

Word Origin for -phobia

via Latin from Greek, from phobos fear
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Medical definitions for phobia (1 of 2)

phobia
[ fōbē-ə ]

n.

A persistent, abnormal, or irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid the feared stimulus.
A strong fear, dislike, or aversion.

Medical definitions for phobia (2 of 2)

-phobia

suff.

An intense, abnormal, or illogical fear of a specified thing:claustrophobia.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Cultural definitions for phobia

phobia
[ (foh-bee-uh) ]

An extreme and often unreasonable fear of some object, concept, situation, or person.

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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