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[ kon-er-bey-shuhn ]


an extensive urban area resulting from the expansion of several cities or towns so that they coalesce but usually retain their separate identities.

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More about conurbation

Conurbation is a coinage of Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932), Scottish sociologist and city planner. The formation of conurbation is simple enough: the Latin prefix con-, a form of the prefix and preposition cum-, cum “with, together with,” urb-, the stem of urbs “city, capital city, large town; the City, i.e., Rome” (unfortunately urbs has no known etymology), and the common noun suffix -ation. Conurbation entered English in 1915.

how is conurbation used?

By 1984, there may well be several giant urban conurbations in the world which will make the present Greater Tokyo, New York and London look rather puny.

Ruth Glass, "Cities in 1984: Stability and Strife," New Scientist, July 16, 1964

Then the conurbation spread and Hallowgate became part of the North Tyneside sprawl.

Ann Cleeves, Killjoy, 1993
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[ sahy-en-ter ]


a mental state in which one has knowledge that one’s action, statement, etc., is wrong, deceptive, or illegal: often used as a standard of guilt: The court found that the company had the requisite scienter for securities fraud.

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More about scienter

In English scienter is both a noun and an adverb used in the law; in Latin scienter is an adverb only and is not restricted to legal usage. Latin scienter “skillfully, expertly; knowingly, consciously” breaks down to scien(t)-, the inflectional stem of the present participle sciēns from the verb scīre “to know, know how to” (scientia “knowledge, science” is a derivative of scient-), and the Latin adverbial suffix -ter, which is regularly used with adjectives and participles whose inflectional stem ends in -nt- (the t of the -nt- is dropped). Scienter entered English in the 17th century.

how is scienter used?

Now, there is absolutely nothing in this case to prove that he had any guilty knowledge to the effect that his account was too low to meet the draft in question. You have proven no scienter whatever.

Arthur Cheney Train, The Confessions of Artemas Quibble, 1911

Lawyers say that Stewart’s insider-trading case will come down to a question of scienter. Did she know she was doing something wrong when she sold her ImClone stock?

Andrew Feinberg, "Are You Guilty of Insider Trading?" Kiplinger's Personal Finance, January 2004
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[ vuh-luhp-choo-er-ee ]


a person whose life is devoted to the pursuit and enjoyment of luxury and sensual pleasure.

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More about voluptuary

The adjective and noun voluptuary comes via French voluptuaire from Late Latin voluptuārius from Latin voluptārius, an adjective derived from voluptās “agreeable sensation, pleasure, delight.” The second u in voluptuārius probably comes from association with the Latin adjective and noun sumptuārius “pertaining to monetary expenses (especially sumptuary laws); a servant in of charge domestic expenses.” Voluptuary entered English in the 17th century.

how is voluptuary used?

Hartmann, a voluptuary, lowered a spoonful of brown sugar crystals into his coffee cup, then placed a square of bitter chocolate on his tongue, and, while it was dissolving, lit his first cigarette. The ensuing mélange of tastes and aromas pleased him profoundly …

Anita Brookner, Latecomers, 1988

Quin is a real voluptuary in the articles of eating and drinking, and so confirmed an epicure, in the common acceptation of the term, that he cannot put up with ordinary fare.

Tobias Smollett, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, 1771
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