being in the shape of a heart; heart-shaped.
Cordiform “in the shape of a heart” is a compound of two combining forms: cord- “heart” and -form “shape.” The stem cord- derives from Latin cor, of the same meaning, which is a distant cognate of English heart. As we learned in the etymologies of the recent Words of the Day corvine and pruinose, the Indo-European languages English and Latin share some predictable sound correspondences, and one of the best-known methods of predicting these correspondences is Grimm’s law. Named after the linguist and folklorist Jakob Grimm (of the Brothers Grimm and their fairy tales), Grimm’s law identifies a common pattern: the voiceless stops k (or c), p, and t in Latin and Ancient Greek frequently correspond to the voiceless fricatives h, f, and th in English. In addition to Latin cor and Ancient Greek kardía, which correspond to English heart, we can see this pattern in Latin pater and Ancient Greek patḗr vs. English father. Cordiform was first recorded in English in the 1750s.
Silver and gilded bronze men’s belt fittings and horse harness elements also provide significant precedents for the silver ornaments created for Turkish women. This connection leads to particularly fruitful explanations of the origins of the misleadingly named “heart-shaped” or cordiform ornament. Its distinctive shape, which has inspired some of the finest and most creative examples of Turkmen design, has puzzled scholars. The ornament’s identification with a heart shape has led to the interpretation of this ornament as a symbol of fertility. It has also been described as a spear, and perceived primarily as an amulet to ward off evil.
Fine’s map exhibits several unique features, the first of which requires some context. The map is striking for its cordiform projection,… which forms the earth into the shape of a heart. Unlike the equidistant conic projection … cordiform maps were developed for both symbolic and mathematical reasons. The latter motivation compelled early humanists to find a means of better accounting for the rounded surface of the earth and to prevent distortion.
said (used with nouns, and with first- and third-person pronouns, and always placed before the subject).
Quoth “said,” despite the similar spelling, is not related to quote. While quote derives from Medieval Latin quotāre “to divide (into chapters or verses),” quoth is the past tense of the obsolete verb quethe, from Old English cwethan “to say.” The verb bequeath “to dispose of by last will” and the noun bequest “a disposition in a will” also stem from this Old English verb. Quoth has a few other cognates in modern Germanic languages, such as Icelandic kvetha “to say, chant,” but is otherwise isolated, with no other likely relatives in Ancient Greek, Latin, or Sanskrit. Quoth was first recorded in English in the late 12th century.
“Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou,” I said, “art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore,—
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night’s Plutonian shore!”
Quoth the Raven, “Nevermore.”
Didst thou not mark the king, what words he spake, ‘Have I no friend will rid me of this living fear?’ Was it not so? …. ‘Have I no friend?’ quoth he: he spake it twice, And urged it twice together, did he not?
a rooflike shelter of canvas or other material extending over a doorway, from the top of a window, over a deck, etc., in order to provide protection, as from the sun.
Awning “a rooflike shelter of canvas extending from a building to provide protection” is a relatively common word with a relatively uncommon history. Of obscure origin, several theories persist regarding its source. One is a derivation from Middle French auvans “sloping roof” (compare modern French auvent), also of obscure origin but sometimes connected to a Celtic source, which would have been reduced to the form awn and compounded with the suffix -ing. Another theory connects awning, because of its earliest use strictly in nautical contexts, to a Low German source cognate to English haven, with the sense of “shelter.” Awning was first recorded in English in the mid-1620s in the writings of Captain John Smith, whose name you may recognize for its association with the Jamestown colony in what is now Virginia.
Up until the mid-20th century, most buildings were developed with the climate in mind. In warmer latitudes, architects incorporated transoms, cupolas, skylights, air shafts, and operable windows to promote cross ventilation and updrafts. Awnings, light-filtering screens, louvered shades, overhangs, and porches defended rooms against the sun. Ceiling fans, which use up to a thousand times less energy than a room air conditioner, were ubiquitous. But as the cachet and influence of modernist architecture—with its inoperable windows and curtain walls of aluminum and glass—spread from the U.S. and Europe around the globe, so did dependence on mechanical air-conditioning.
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