Words nearby complementary base
What is a complementary base?
DNA and RNA are complex molecules that are central to genetics and both are made of things called nucleotides. Nucleotides are made of a sugar molecule, phosphoric acid, and a base. In chemistry, the word base refers to a chemical that will give or receive electrons or protons, and the two partner bases that share with each other in the nucleotides of DNA and RNA are called complementary bases.
The arrangement of the complementary bases is crucial to DNA’s structure and is what gives it its characteristic double helix shape.
Why are complementary bases important?
Deoxyribonucleic acid, widely known as DNA, is, essentially, the very complicated molecule that makes you you. In 1949, scientist Erwin Chargaff figured out that DNA always has an equal number of each of the two nitrogen bases that always bond together. We now know these as complementary bases. His observation helped later scientists zero in on the double-helix structure of DNA.
The double helix is shaped like a twisty ladder. Two incredibly long strands of nucleotides form the sides of the ladder. The parts of the nucleotide that connect together to “attach” the two nucleotide strands are called nitrogen bases. In DNA, the nitrogen bases are named guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine, and they will connect with each other by forming bonds (specifically, hydrogen bonds) with their hydrogen atoms. Guanine always bonds with cytosine, which makes them a pair of complementary bases. Adenine always bonds with thymine, making them DNA’s other pair of complementary bases. These pairs form the “rungs” of the DNA ladder. (In double-stranded RNA, the four nitrogen bases and their pairings are the same as in DNA except for thymine, which in RNA is replaced by uracil.)
DNA owes its double-helix structure to the complementary bases that form its rungs, but just as important is the order in which these bases are configured. In fact, the order of DNA’s complementary bases is what makes up the genetic code, which is the source of information that cells use to make proteins. And proteins are essential to life itself.
Did you know ... ?
A human being’s DNA is made of pairs of around 3 billion complementary bases, over 99 percent of which is in the same order in all people. In identical twins, the sequence of their complementary bases might have only a few dozen differences out of the entire 3 billion!
What are real-life examples of complementary bases?
Complementary bases are typically one of the first things biology students learn about when studying DNA, since they are crucial to its structure.
Complementary Base Pairs pic.twitter.com/gyXEz94RUy
— Carlson (@Super_Carlson) July 9, 2017
[ASAP] Synthesis of Phosphoramidite Monomers Equipped with Complementary Bases for Solid-Phase DNA Oligomerization https://t.co/rVOEOd0j6w
— Serpell Lab Reads (@SerpellLabReads) December 23, 2019
What other words are related to complementary base?
Which of the following complementary bases is paired with thymine?
How to use complementary base in a sentence
Paperback publishers distributed their titles in African-American neighborhoods because it expanded their market base.
If ISIS “came into a base and killed hundreds of troops, then people would ask a lot more questions.”Pentagon Doesn’t Know How Many People It’s Killed in the ISIS War|Nancy A. Youssef|January 7, 2015|DAILY BEAST
Huckabee will also need to establish a reliable fundraising base, something that up until now has proved to be elusive.
Both are considered marginal figures in the House GOP caucus and have no real base of support for their respective bids.
In the weeks following the Sept. 9, car bombing at the Iranian base, Iran raided a village in the Pakistani district of Chagai.The Dangerous Drug-Funded Secret War Between Iran and Pakistan|Umar Farooq|December 29, 2014|DAILY BEAST
The upper part of the stem is usually unbranched, but whorls of branches occur towards the base.How to Know the Ferns|S. Leonard Bastin
It is a vile world because it is an under-educated world, unreasonable, suspicious, base and ferocious.The Salvaging Of Civilisation|H. G. (Herbert George) Wells
In ordinary work, however, it is safer to base the distinction upon size than upon structure.A Manual of Clinical Diagnosis|James Campbell Todd
If he married that base-born creature Dorothy, no respectable person would ever enter the house.The World Before Them|Susanna Moodie
There might be in the school boys base enough to charge that he lacked spirit in his attitude of armed neutrality.The Soldier of the Valley|Nelson Lloyd