Biochemistry. a polypeptide hormone, produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, that regulates the metabolism of glucose and other nutrients.
Pharmacology. any of several commercial preparations of this substance, each of which allows a particular rate of absorption into the system: genetically engineered or obtained from the pig or ox pancreas, and used in the treatment of diabetes to restore the normal ability of the body to utilize sugars and other carbohydrates.
1922 (earlier insuline, 1914), coined in English from Latin insula "island," so called because the hormone is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insuline was coined independently in French in 1909.
A polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the islets of Langerhans, helps regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, especially the conversion of glucose to glycogen, and promotes protein synthesis and the formation and storage of neutral lipids.
Any of various pharmaceutical preparations containing this hormone that are derived from the pancreas of certain animals or produced through genetic engineering and are used parenterally in the medical treatment and management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
A hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood by stimulating cells, especially liver and muscle cells, to absorb and metabolize glucose. Insulin also stimulates the conversion of blood glucose into glycogen and fat, which are the body's chief sources of stored carbohydrates.
A drug containing this hormone, obtained from the pancreas of animals or produced synthetically and used to treat diabetes.